Facts about Central African Republic 1: the land. It is bordered by Ashanti and Eastern regions to the north, Western region to the west, Greater Accra region to the east, and to the south by the Gulf of Guinea. Large areas of the savanna probably were created by slash-and-burn agricultural techniques, through which the original forest was cleared and the resulting grasslands maintained by periodic bushfires. Similarly, the Anglican Church of the Province of Central Africa covers dioceses in Botswana, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe, while the Church of Central Africa, Presbyterian has synods in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The Kanem-Bornu Empire was centered in the Chad Basin. Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Rwanda, and São Tomé and Príncipe are members of the Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS). The hydroelectric dam on the Congo River at Inga Falls, near Matadi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Congo River basin is second only to that of the Amazon in rate of flow. As observed on the physical map of the country above, a large part of it is covered by a flat or rolling plateau with an average elevation of about 500 m above sea level. Also in the same region is Kahuzi-Biega National Park, which features mountain gorillas. Later in his reign, the Bornu Empire conquered and made the state a tributary. The Lunda's western expansion also saw claims of descent by the Yaka and the Pende. Scientists, legal scholars, historians and poets of medieval period from central Asia were among the greatest in the world. [4], The Central African Federation (1953–1963), also called the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, was made up of what are now the nations of Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. There were around 5.7 million people living in Kyrgyzstan. Sao artifacts show that they were skilled workers in bronze, copper, and iron. Later, maize (corn) and cassava (manioc) would be introduced to the region via trade with the Portuguese at their ports at Luanda and Benguela. The kingdom's first ruler was Mbang Birni Besse. Other parks and reserves are located in the equatorial forest in Congo, such as Maiko and Salonga national parks. This created Lake Kivu; its waters discharge to the south, through the Ruzizi (Rusizi) River gorge into Lake Tanganyika, one outlet of which links the lake with the Lualaba River and thus the Congo. The Kongo inhabit western Congo (Kinshasa), western Congo (Brazzaville), and Angola; the Chokwe and the Lunda occupy Congo (Kinshasa) and Angola. The Central Highlands are mostly green and lush and together with Western kenya it … The Luena (Lwena) and Lozi (Luyani) in Zambia also claim descent from Kinguri. "Inside the Virtual Ambazonia: Separatism, Hate Speech, Disinformation and Diaspora in the Cameroonian Anglophone Crisis." At least 40% of the rural population of northern and eastern Central Africa lives in poverty and routinely face chronic food shortages. The Central Region is one of the sixteen administrative regions of Ghana. The Imbangala formed the slave-raiding state of Kasanje, a major source of slaves during the 17th and 18th centuries.[22][23]. Burundi and Rwanda contain a Hutu majority, a Tutsi minority, and some Twa (Pygmies). The landscapes of Central Africa are most often wide plateaus, which are smooth in the central part and etched at the periphery. Geography – Mostly flat, some hills in north-east and south-west. Pop (2001 est.) In the latter countries Rundi and Rwanda are (along with French) the official languages. Similar cultural practices stemming from common origins as largely Nilo-Saharan or Bantu peoples is also evident in Central Africa including in music, dance, art, body adornment, initiation and marriage rituals. Downstream from Matadi the river becomes navigable again before entering its estuary. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Monetary Unit – Central African Franc. The Central African Republic is located in the heart of Africa where it occupies an area of 622,984 sq. Manikongo António I (1661–1665), with a Kongolese army of 5,000, was destroyed by an army of Afro-Portuguese at the Battle of Mbwila. The Shilluk Kingdom was centered in South Sudan from the 15th century from along a strip of land along the western bank of White Nile, from Lake No to about 12° north latitude. Rwanda and Burundi, although they are located east of the East African Rift System, which forms the eastern divide of the Congo basin, are also often considered part of the region because of their long administrative connections with the former Belgian Congo (now Congo [Kinshasa]). Some parts of Central Africa lie within the Chad basin (northern Central African Republic) or the Nile basin (eastern Rwanda and northeastern Burundi, the Western Rift Valley north of the Virunga Mountains). (2018). In the north a low divide (2,000–2,300 feet [610–700 metres]) separates the Congo River and its tributaries from the Chad basin. The Sao civilization flourished from ca. Savannas also border the cooler and drier Atlantic coast of the two Congo republics, while mangrove thickets stretch along the banks of nearby estuaries, lagoons, and deltas. This article covers the history of the region from prehistoric time to the end of the colonial period in the 20th century. The leaders established another state at Matamba, affiliated with Queen Nzinga, who put up a strong resistance to the Portuguese until coming to terms with them. In each country some major groups enjoy a numerically dominant position—for example, the Fang in Gabon and the Mboshi, Teke, and Kongo in Congo (Brazzaville). Updates? National borders have split the territory of many ethnic groups. The Kingdom of Baguirmi existed as an independent state during the 16th and 17th centuries southeast of Lake Chad in what is now the country of Chad. Philippe Lavachery et al., Komé-Kribi: Rescue Archaeology Along the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline (2012). Facts About Africa. These lingua francas often overlap borders. Region – Central Africa. By the 15th century CE, the farming Bakongo people (ba being the plural prefix) were unified as the Kingdom of Kongo under a ruler called the manikongo, residing in the fertile Pool Malebo area on the lower Congo River. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Baguirmi emerged to the southeast of the Kanem-Bornu Empire. The land area of Central African Republic is around 240,000 square miles or 620,000 square km. The country is also known as CAR. Due to common historical processes and widespread demographic movements between the countries of Central Africa before the Bantu Migration into much of southern Central Africa, the cultures of the region evidence many similarities and interrelationships. In savanna or wooded savanna regions are Garamba National Park in northeastern Congo, well known for its white rhinoceroses, Upemba National Park in southern Congo, parks in the northern part of the Central African Republic, and Akagera National Park in northeastern Rwanda. Stefan Goodwin, Africas Legacies Of Urbanization (2006), p. 191. The Central Highlands is the most densely populated and intensely cultivated region in kenya and home to one of the biggest and historically most influential tribes in Kenya, the Kikuyus. Ndongo was ruled by the ngola. The Central region is renowned for its many elite higher education institutions and an economy based on an abundance of industrial minerals and tourism. Central African Republic: 8 interesting facts about one of the world’s poorest countries 1. His son Naweej expanded the empire further and is known as the first Lunda emperor, with the title Mwata Yamvo (mwaant yaav, mwant yav), the "Lord of Vipers". The dry tropical forest covers the southern Kwango and Katanga (Shaba) plateaus in Congo (Kinshasa) but exists only in shreds north of the Equator, in the Central African Republic. It includes the same countries as the African Development Bank's definition, along with Angola, and São Tomé and Príncipe. J. Cameron Monroe, Akinwumi Ogundiran, Power and Landscape in Atlantic West Africa: Archeological Perspectives, p. 316, Peter Mitchell et al., The Oxford Handbook of African Archeology (2013), p. 855: "The relatively recent discovery of extensive walled settlements at the transition from the Neolithic to the Early Iron Age in the Chad Basin (Magnavita et al., 2006) indicates what enormous sites and processes may still await recognition. [28] The remainder of the basin was divided by the British in Nigeria who took Kano in 1903,[29] and the Germans in Cameroon. World. The islands of the Gulf of Guinea have a mixed population originating from Angola as well as from West and Central Africa because of their history as slave plantations and, later, as plantations with largely forced labour. [32] Flood recession agriculture is practiced around Lake Chad and in the riverine wetlands. Facts about Central African Republic will inform you about county in Africa. km. As of 2009, about 14.7 percent of the world’s population resides in Africa. Language – French, Sangho, tribal languages. North and south of the equatorial strip the dry season increases in severity with latitude. The Central region attains many tourist attractions such as castles, forts and beaches stretched along the Central region's coastline. [12] The largest Sao archaeological finds have been made south of Lake Chad. Central Africa is characterized by hot and wet climates on both sides of the Equator. Small farms line the slopes in the highlands of Burundi, one of the most densely populated regions in central Africa. The Economic Community of Central African States and the Lake Chad Basin Commission are notable Central African supra-regional organizations. Seventy-five percent of the world’s poorest countries are located in Africa, including Zimbabwe, Liberia and Ethiopia. Southern Zimbabwe and much of South Africa are within a … One in every four of the world’s language are spoken only in Africa. [33] Nomadic herders migrate with their animals into the grasslands of the northern part of the basin for a few weeks during each short rainy season, where they intensively graze the highly nutritious grasses. In the Central African Republic the Baya, in the west, are the most numerous, but the Banda, in the centre, occupy the largest territory. Size – 622,984 km². There are seven countries in Central America: Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica and Panama.The population of Central America is approximately 41,739,000. By the 16th century, the manikongo held authority from the Atlantic in the west to the Kwango River in the east. The Central African Republic (CAR) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.. https://www.britannica.com/place/central-Africa. Kenya and Zambia only have about 1-5% of the primary forests remaining. In the 17th century there was a revolt of the Maba people who established a Muslim dynasty. Deforestation rates in Africa are twice the average for the rest of the world. Both Niger and Chad are mostly desert, however, and in recent years, Lake Chad has shrunk to one-tenth of its former size as the rivers that feed it have dried up. The Tunjur people founded the Wadai Kingdom to the east of Bornu in the 16th century. The Kanem empire went into decline, shrank, and in the 14th century was defeated by Bilala invaders from the Lake Fitri region.[14]. [13] Kanem rose in the 8th century in the region to the north and east of Lake Chad. It is driest in the Northern Hemisphere in January (when the area receives dry Saharan air masses) and in the Southern Hemisphere in July; the season lasts nearly seven months in the far northern part of the Central African Republic and in far southern Congo (Kinshasa). The kingdom was founded during the mid-fifteenth century CE by its first ruler, Nyikang. With its steep gradients over short distances, rainy highlands, and relatively dry bottoms, the Western Rift Valley region is characterized by sharp vegetation contrasts. Many Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Congo Ubangian communities reside in the region. By the late 16th century the Bornu empire had expanded and recaptured the parts of Kanem that had been conquered by the Bulala. In Congo (Kinshasa) the major groups are the Kongo (southwest), Mongo (central basin), Luba (south-central), Zande and Mangbetu (northeast), and Ngbaka (northwest). Most of the Ubangian speakers in Africa (often grouped with Niger-Congo) are also found in Central Africa, such as the Gbaya,[39] Banda[39] and Zande,[40][39] in northern Central Africa. The area’s rich linguistic diversity includes the use of lingua francas born of local languages, pidgin creoles (in the islands of the Gulf of Guinea), and European languages, which are the official languages of the various countries (Portuguese in São Tomé and Príncipe, French elsewhere). In the 1450s, a Luba from the royal family Ilunga Tshibinda married Lunda queen Rweej and united all Lunda peoples. [10], Following the Bantu Migration from Western Africa, Bantu kingdomes and empires began to develop in southern Central Africa. Southern Africa consists of the portion generally south of -10° latitude and the great rainforests of Congo . The Wadai Empire was centered on Chad and the Central African Republic from the 17th century. Its trees are smaller and less dense than those of the equatorial forest, and they are deciduous, losing their leaves during the dry season. Simien Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. [6] According to Zangato and Holl, there is evidence of iron-smelting in the Central African Republic and Cameroon that may date back to 3000 to 2500 BCE. [19][20][21], Kongo gained captives from the Kingdom of Ndongo in wars of conquest. There is no serious dry season, but in the extreme east and west there are two months (July and August) of lower rainfall. Africa is home to over 1 billion people who speak over 1,500 different languages. The Imbangala of inland Angola claimed descent from a founder, Kinguri, brother of Queen Rweej, who could not tolerate the rule of mulopwe Tshibunda. Central Highlands. In 2011, South Sudan gained its independence from the Republic of Sudan after over 50 years of war. On 9 April 1892 he reached Kukawa on the shore of the lake. The rivers of the western region are navigable for only a few miles from their estuaries, though the Ogooué, in Gabon, which lies in a wider sedimentary coastal basin, is navigable for more than 100 miles (160 km). [21] Over one thousand languages are spoken in Africa, and some scholars place this number closer to two thousand. Today, several ethnic groups of northern Cameroon and southern Chad but particularly the Sara people claim descent from the civilization of the Sao. 75,001,000. Corrections? TripSavvy / Kaley McKean Here Are 17 Facts about Central America . The Red Sea and Suez Canal lie to the north-east and separate Africa from Asia. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The basin contains some marshlands in the region where the Congo, Ubangi, Likouala, and Sangha rivers converge and where Lakes Mai-Ndombe and Tumba are found. Central Africa is characterized by hot and wet climates on both sides of the Equator. Their son Mulopwe Luseeng expanded the kingdom. The predominant religions of Central Africa are Christianity and traditional faiths. [25] Parfait-Louis Monteil was given charge of an expedition to discover where this line actually ran. In the 21st century, many jihadist and Islamist groups began to operate in the Central African region, including the Seleka and the Ansaru. Professor of Modern History, University of Kent at Canterbury, England. [27] Central Africa is a subregion of the African continent comprising various countries according to different definitions. The diurnal range of about 20 °F (11 °C) always exceeds the range of monthly means. Facts about Central African Republic 2: the condition of the land area. In the central part of the basin, the fan of quiet rivers constitutes one of the most attractive networks of navigable waters in the world, but this network is cut off from the Atlantic by a succession of rapids in western Congo (Kinshasa) between Kinshasa and Matadi. In the far north the thorny steppe is a typical Sahelian landscape. They were experts in metalwork, pottery, and weaving raffia cloth. The countries found in Central Africa are Gabon, Rwanda, Burundi, the islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Ndongo would also engage in slave trading with the Portuguese, with São Tomé being a transit point to Brazil. With superior organization, they were able to conquer their neighbors and extract tribute. Central Africa is a subregion of the African continent comprising various countries according to different definitions. [24]On 5 August 1890 the British and French concluded an agreement to clarify the boundary between French West Africa and what would become Nigeria. Annual rainfall exceeds 80 inches (2,000 mm) in coastal Gabon, in the centre of the Congo basin, and on the mountain summits bordering the Western Rift Valley. The landscape beyond the divide descends by steps toward Lake Chad. Regional Representative, of West and Central Africa Region, 2019-2021 The West and Central Africa Region currently comprises 14 FIUs representing the jurisdictions of: Benin; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Chad; Congo Brazzaville; Cote D’Ivoire; Gabon; Ghana; Mali; Niger; Nigeria Senegal; Togo Notwithstanding its low latitude and proximity to humid air masses, the coastal region of southwestern Central Africa has an abnormally long dry season with a low annual rainfall because of the presence of a cold marine current (the Benguela Current) along the coast. During the nineteenth century, the Shilluk Kingdom faced decline following military assaults from the Ottoman Empire and later British and Sudanese colonization in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Another significant plateau region is the Ethiopian Highlands. The rainforest is surrounded by a patchwork of savannas and other forests. The most rugged terrain lies on the eastern fringe of the Congo basin. the sixth century BCE to as late as the sixteenth century CE in northern Central Africa. Omissions? It is bordered by Chad to the north, Sudan to the northeast, South Sudan to the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the south, the Republic of the Congo to the southwest and Cameroon to the west.. Equatorial Central Africa is covered by an evergreen forest with an area of almost 400,000 square miles (1,035,920 square km). Lingala, which is important in Congo (Kinshasa), is also spoken in Congo (Brazzaville), as are Kongo and Sango, which in turn is the main language in the Central African Republic. The equatorial strip that extends from the Atlantic Ocean to the Western Rift Valley is influenced throughout the year by the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), resulting in intense, heavy precipitation. The Luba political system was retained, and conquered peoples were integrated into the system. This rainforest—an exuberant world of high trees, rich in epiphytes and lianas—takes three main forms: permanently wet marshy forests at the confluence of the Ubangi and Congo rivers; gallery forests, which are subject to periodic flooding, along banks and river floodplains; and, most extensive, forests of dry land, either featuring a single dominant species or, more often, harbouring a variety of species (sometimes several hundred per acre). It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Indian Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the north. [31] Fisheries have traditionally been managed by a system where each village has recognized rights over a defined part of the river, wetland or lake, and fishers from elsewhere must seek permission and pay a fee to use this area. Kinguri became the title of kings of states founded by Queen Rweej's brother. Peoples of Africa: Burkina Faso-Comoros - Volume 2 (2001), p. 86, Economic Community of Central African States, Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa, History of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, List of ethnic groups of Africa § Central Africa, Music of Africa § West, Central, Southeast and South_Africa, "Economic Community of Central African States", "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings", "Agricultural Fires Seem to Engulf Central Africa", "The World Factbook: Central African Republic", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency", https://books.google.com/books?isbn=0739133489, https://books.google.com/books?isbn=076147160X, List of countries where Arabic is an official language, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Central_Africa&oldid=991768896, Short description is different from Wikidata, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Democratic Republic of Congo, Angola, Republic of Congo, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 18:52. The Portuguese settled along the coast as trade dealers, not venturing on conquest of the interior. Read CNN's Fast Facts about the Central African Republic and learn more about the landlocked country in central Africa. Central Africa’s most famous national park, Virunga National Park in Congo (Kinshasa), is home to elephants, lions, hippopotamuses, warthogs, forest hogs, okapis, and mountain gorillas on the volcano slopes. The Portuguese in the latter part of the 16th century tried to gain control of Ndongo but were defeated by the Mbundu. The interior basin of the Congo River is joined to the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow neck traversing ridges parallel to the coast. The mean annual temperatures in the region vary from 77 to 82 °F (25 to 28 °C), and monthly means vary only a few degrees throughout the year. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world both in size and population. 7. The Teke are spread throughout Congo (Brazzaville), Gabon, and Congo (Kinshasa). During the latter part of the 1660s, the Portuguese tried to gain control of Kongo. Central Africa is a hugely fertile region, with abundant grasslands, vast tropical rainforests, and many rivers and lakes. Central Africa, region of Africa that straddles the Equator and is drained largely by the Congo River system. The volcanic dam also caused a river course reversal in northern Rwanda, generating lakes and marshes. Swahili, the eastern Africa language, is the lingua franca in eastern Congo (Kinshasa) and among the merchants of Burundi and Rwanda. The kingdom was not as welcoming as Kongo; it viewed the Portuguese with great suspicion and as an enemy. All the rivers in the region flow down through rapids or waterfalls from the peripheral plateaus to the central basin. On 2 June 1909, the Wadai capital of Abéché was occupied by the French. Situated about 500 mi (805 km) north of the equator, the Central African Republic is a landlocked nation bordered by Cameroon, Chad, the Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the Republic of Congo. Western rock and pop music, as well as Afrobeat, soukous and other genres have become popular nation-wide. [11] Finds include bronze sculptures and terra cotta statues of human and animal figures, coins, funerary urns, household utensils, jewelry, highly decorated pottery, and spears. The Sao lived by the Chari River south of Lake Chad in territory that later became part of Cameroon and Chad. At its height it encompassed an area covering not only much of Chad, but also parts of modern southern Libya, eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria, northern Cameroon, parts of South Sudan and the Central African Republic. Slavery wreaked havoc in the interior, with states initiating wars of conquest for captives. These include the Mongo, Kongo and Luba peoples. [26] At first Wadai paid tribute to Bornu and Durfur, but by the 18th century Wadai was fully independent and had become an aggressor against its neighbors. Leading Facts About Poverty in Africa . Fact 9 The music of the Central African Republic includes many different forms. [7] Extensive walled settlements have recently been found in Northeast Nigeria, approximately 60 km (37 mi) southwest of Lake Chad dating to the first millennium BCE. For the postcolonial history of the region, see Burundi, Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Kinshasa), Gabon, Rwanda, and São Tomé and Príncipe. In the 16th and 17th centuries, prior to French colonisation of central Africa in the 1880s, many tribes fled to the region in order to escape the slave trade. The kingdom of Lunda came to an end in the 19th century when it was invaded by the Chokwe, who were armed with guns.[17][18]. It comprises, according to common definitions, the Republic of the Congo (Brazzaville), the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Kinshasa); Gabon is usually included along with the Central African Republic because of their common historical ties, both of these countries having once been part of French Equatorial Africa. Higher plateaus, which extend through older sedimentary strata around the centre of the Congo basin, reach an elevation of 2,600 to 3,000 feet (790 to 900 metres) north of Brazzaville and exceed 3,000 feet near the Angolan border to the south. Continent – Africa. Notable Central African supra-regional organizations include the Lake Chad Basin Commission and the Economic Community of Central African States. Central Africa is primarily inhabited by Bantu people. The Lunda linked Central Africa with the western coast trade. The land of CAR is about 620,000 square kilometres or 240,000 sq mi and the population is around 4.7 million. The entire region is roughly the same size as the United States west of the Mississippi River. Central Asia can also be called as region of beautiful and high mountain lakes in the world. Over the course of the 2010s, the internationally unrecognized secessionist state called Ambazonia gained increasing momentum in its home regions. [21] Africa has over 25% of the world’s bird species. [16][17], Numerous states claimed descent from the Lunda. Religion – 35% tribal beliefs, 25% Protestant, 25% Roman Catholic, 15% Muslim. Some major ethnic groups in Central Africa are as follows: For the former British colony, now called, For the Central African Federation (1953-1963), see. Most languages spoken in Central Africa belong to the Bantu group of the Niger-Congo language family. The mwata yamvo assigned a cilool or kilolo (royal adviser) and tax collector to each state conquered. 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