The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and highly braided. It lasted from 321 to 185 BCE. Culture complex combines cultural traits (attributes of culture).  The variation between the two names is explained by the Old Iranian sound change *s > h, which occurred between 850–600 BCE according to Asko Parpola. A river keeps the land green and fertile for growing crops.  In July 2010, following abnormally heavy monsoon rains, the Indus River rose above its banks and started flooding. It was succeeded by the Shunga dynasty, which ruled in central India for approximately a century. ", 10.1130/0016-7606(2001)113<1039:DOTIFA>2.0.CO;2, "Corona effect: Only Sindhis allowed for Sindhu Darshan Fest", "The Genetic Ancestry of Modern Indus Valley Populations from Northwest India", "Indus Delta, Pakistan: economic costs of reduction in freshwater flow", International Union for Conservation of Nature, "Pakistan's water economy: getting the balance right", "Pakistan's floodwaters welcomed along Indus delta", "River basin development phases and implications of closure", "Integrated Water Resource Systems: Theory and Policy Implications", "Technology Breakthroughs for Global Water Security: A Deep Dive into South Asia", "Global warming benefits to Tibet: Chinese official. The people lost their drive to keep the cities orderly and prosperous. The Indus river feeds the Indus submarine fan, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth. Ap Human Geography Unit 4.  Heavy rains had left the river basin along with the Lake Manchar, Lake Hemal and Kalri Lake (all in modern-day Pakistan) inundated.  Death of the Indus river dolphin has also been attributed to fishermen using poison to kill fish and scooping them up. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to those regions immediately along the east bank of the Indus, but by 300 BC, Greek writers including Herodotus and Megasthenes were applying the term to the entire subcontinent that extends much farther eastward.. all videos study guides slides. hamilton98lj. The Induan Age at start of the Triassic Period of geological time is named for the Indus region. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named the Satnad River (sat = "seven", nadī = "river"), as the river now carried the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. Next lesson. It flows through China (western Tibet), India, and Pakistan. The Indus River (called Sindhū in Sanskrit with cognates in most Indic languages) is one of the main rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the Indian subcontinent. It was crossed by the invading armies of Alexander, but after his Macedonians conquered the west bank—joining it to the Hellenic world, they elected to retreat along the southern course of the river, ending Alexander's Asian campaign. Chronologically, the fourth of the six urbanization hearths.  In early August, the heaviest flooding moved southward along the Indus River from severely affected northern regions toward western Punjab, where at least 1,400,000 acres (570,000 ha) of cropland was destroyed, and the southern province of Sindh. The Guddu Barrage is 1,350 m (4,430 ft) long – irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The Indus River (called Sindhū in Sanskrit with cognates in most Indic languages) is one of the main rivers of the Indo-Gangetic Plain in the Indian subcontinent. In Europe most people live in _____ , and worked in _____ ? The Indus river and its watershed has a rich biodiversity. Indus River - an Asian river that rises in Tibet and flows through northern India and then southwest through Kashmir and Pakistan to the Arabian Sea; "the valley of … Indus Valley cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro began as riverside farming villages about 5,000 years ago. The layers of buildings, forms, and artifacts sequentially imprinted on the landscape by the activities of various human occupants… ... AP Human Geography Unit 4 Vocabulary. Culture complex combines cultural traits (attributes of culture). The flooding followed the previous year's floods, which devastated a large part of the country. ... AP Human Geography ALL TERMS. "Lion River" or Lion Spring) in Tibetan, 印度 (Yìndù) in Chinese, Nilab in Turki and සින්දු නදී (Sindhu Nadi) in Sinhalese. , The 2011 Sindh floods began during the Pakistani monsoon season in mid-August 2011, resulting from heavy monsoon rains in Sindh, eastern Balochistan, and southern Punjab.  A later Persian name for the river was Darya, which similarly has the connotations of large body of water and sea. jrdbnntt.  As the altitude further declines the Indus basin becomes overall quite slow-flowing as it passes through the Punjab Plain. Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab region of South Asia, while the lower course of the river ends in a large delta in the southern Sindh province of Pakistan. 77 terms. The heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. AP Human Geography Unit 7. At least 1.7 million acres (690,000 ha; 2,700 sq mi) of arable land were inundated. Nearing the end of the Indus Valley Civilization, the cities began to wither and the strong economy slowly deteriorated. In the uppermost, highest part of the Indus River basin there are relatively few genera and species: Diptychus, Ptychobarbus, Schizopyge, Schizopygopsis and Schizothorax snowtrout, Triplophysa loaches, and the catfish Glyptosternon reticulatum. The Indus Valley Civilization was not confined to these two sites in the north-western area of the subcontinent. Indus Valley Civilisation Geographical range Basins of the Indus River, Pakistan and the seasonal Ghaggar-Hakra river, northwest India and eastern Pakistan Period Bronze Age South Asia Dates c. 3300 – c. 1300 BCE Type site Harappa Major sites Harappa, Mohenjo-daro , Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi Preceded by Mehrgarh Followed by Painted Grey Ware culture Cemetery H culture … Had elaborately planned cities. Early river valley civilizations arose in Mesopotamia, EGYPT, the INDUS RIVER Valley, and CHINA.Earlier agricultural societies (8,000 to 13,000 years ago) were largely subsistence cultures. The word Punjab means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej, all of which finally flow into the Indus. Southern India and Eastern China. , The entire left bank of Indus river in Sind province is protected from river flooding by constructing around 600 km long levees. AP Human Geography Exam Score of 9.7 11.6 12.1 16.5 16.7 17.9 20. Floods wiped out the irrigation system that supplied water to the crops, and many of the buildings were smothered. AP Human Geography- …  The lowermost part of the river and its delta are home to freshwater fish, but also a number of brackish and marine species. The influence of this culture extended to the Punjab, Sindh, North West Frontier Province (now in Pakistan), Baluchistan, Rajasthan, U.P., Gujarat and even some parts of south India. "Father of Rivers") in Pashto, نهر السند (Nahar al-Sind) in Arabic, སེང་གེ་གཙང་པོ། (singi khamban lit. The Rigveda describes several rivers, including one named "Sindhu". Mesopotamia, Nile River Valley, Indus River Valley, Huanghe and Wei River Valleys, Mesoamerica. The Zanskar River, which flows into the Indus in Ladakh, has a greater volume of water than the Indus itself before that point.. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works. Mauryan empire, in ancient India, a state centered at Pataliputra (later Patna) near the junction of the Son and Ganges rivers. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres (15,000–17,000 feet) deep near the Nanga Parbat massif. 70 terms. Chronologically, the third of the six urbanization hearths. The constant flooding simply broke them of their morale as a proud people of such an advanced civilization. The Indus are said to have advanced in pottery, weaving and metal work.  As a result, the 2010 Pakistan floods were considered "good news" for the ecosystem and population of the river delta as they brought much needed fresh water.  It was adopted by the Romans as Indus. The map also includes major mountains ranges, rivers, The Arabian Sea and The Bay of Bengal. This is the currently selected item. They depended on yearly floods too. The Indus River valley civilization started about 2500 B.C.E, the largest city was Mohanjo-Daro. 55 terms. It is one of the longest rivers in the world, with a length of some 2,000 miles (3,200 km). AP Human Geography Ch. , There are two otter species in the Indus River basin: the Eurasian otter in the northeastern highland sections and the smooth-coated otter elsewhere in the river basin. It was most likely the intermittent floods that tore apart and put and end to this civilization.  It consists of around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Its estimated annual flow is around 243 km3 (58 cu mi), twice that of the Nile and three times that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers combined, making it one of the largest rivers in the world in terms of average annual flow. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. Sediment clogging from poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation on numerous occasions. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2 (450,000 sq mi). *Significance:* It embraced a far larger area than Egypt and Mesopotamia with elaborately planned out cities. Over several centuries Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur crossed the river to invade Sindh and Punjab, providing a gateway to the Indian subcontinent. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times – it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake.  As of September 2010[update], over two thousand people had died and over a million homes had been destroyed since the flooding began. Farmers lived together in villages. Study free AP Human Geography flashcards and improve your grades. The Indus Valley Civilization was not confined to these two sites in the north-western area of the subcontinent. The first farmers also liked to live near rivers. An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban (around the CBD) Bosnywash. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan and India are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and Sutlej). To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. It is joined by the Panjnad at Mithankot. , Southworth suggests that the name Sindhu is derived from Cintu, a Dravidian word for date palm, a tree commonly found in Sindh. This happened two centuries after the Indus river shifted its course westwards following the 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake.  The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal – linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers – extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Irrigated agriculture provided an economic base and a written language. Five Hearths of UrbanizationFive Hearths of Urbanization • Mesopotamia, 3500 BCE • Nile River Valley, 3200 BCE • Indus River Valley, 2200 BCE • Huang He and Wei River Valleys, 1500 BCE • Mesoamerica, 200 BCE ... AP Human Geography: Unit 7 - Urban Geography and Development Daniel Eiland. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 – the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. Its principal right-bank tributaries are the Shyok, Gilgit, Kabul, Gomal, and Kurram rivers. Hinduism: core ideas of Brahman, Atman, Samsara and Moksha.  Sindhu Darshan Festival is held on every Guru Purnima on the banks of Indus. wang03ela. 23: 7203449284: Rise of the State The river has historically been important to many cultures of the region. For the Bronze Age civilisation, see, "Indus" and "Sindhu" redirect here.  Fish also played a major role in earlier cultures of the region, including the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation where depictions of fish were frequent. The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; the river begins at the confluence of the Sengge Zangbo and Gar Tsangpo rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan (Gang Rinpoche, Mt. Among the settlements were the major urban centres of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi.  As a result, the government banned fishing from Guddu Barrage to Sukkur. The Indus river dolphin formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons – it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. Megalopolis. Biologyiscool TEACHER. The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating back over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the South of Thatta in the Sindh province of Pakistan, The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world to exhibit a tidal bore. "Indus Valley" redirects here. The flat land area made transportation extremely easy. Unit 2: River Valley Civilizations Patrick Henry High School » Teacher Pages » Social Studies » B. Bellinger » Pre AP World History I » Unit 2: River Valley Civilizations Unit 1: Geography and Beginnings of Mankind Ecology.  Other variants of the name Sindhu include Assyrian Sinda (as early as the 7th century BC), Persian Ab-e-sind, Pashto Abasind, Arab Al-Sind, Chinese Sintow, and Javanese Santri. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centers. Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayan, Karakoram and Hindu Kush ranges, the river supports the ecosystems of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. Irrigation canals were first built by the people of the Indus Valley Civilisation, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire and the Mughal Empire. Sanskrit connections to English. Downriver from around Thakot, Tarbela, the Kabul–Indus river confluence, Attock Khurd and Peshawar the diversity rises strongly, including many cyprinids (Amblypharyngodon, Aspidoparia, Barilius, Chela, Cirrhinus, Crossocheilus, Cyprinion, Danio, Devario, Esomus, Garra, Labeo, Naziritor, Osteobrama, Pethia, Puntius, Rasbora, Salmophasia, Securicula and Systomus), true loaches (Botia and Lepidocephalus), stone loaches (Acanthocobitis and Nemacheilus), ailiid catfish (Clupisoma), bagridae catfish (Batasio, Mystus, Rita and Sperata), airsac catfish (Heteropneustes), schilbid catfish (Eutropiichthys), silurid catfish (Ompok and Wallago), sisorid catfish (Bagarius, Gagata, Glyptothorax and Sisor), gouramis (Trichogaster), nandid leaffish (Nandus), snakeheads (Channa), spiny eel (Macrognathus and Mastacembelus), knifefish (Notopterus), glassfish (Chanda and Parambassis), clupeids (Gudusia), needlefish (Xenentodon) and gobies (Glossogobius), as well as a few introduced species. The plain strip of land stretches across Southern Asia, and includes the present-day countries India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan. In the Nanga Parbat region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface.. Pakistan is also building Munda Dam. Shang China.  The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. Geography World View Science Pets & Animals ... which spread outward with human migration. The Indus Valley Civilisation extended from across northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India, with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River to Ropar on the upper Sutlej. The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains – it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. Early historical kingdoms that arose in the Indus Valley include Gandhāra, and the Ror dynasty of Sauvīra. This river was known to the ancient Indians in Sanskrit as Sindhu and the Persians as Hindu which was regarded by both of them as "the border river". Tigris and Euphrates rivers, Egypt (Nile River), Indus river valley, and China (east). Palla fish (Tenualosa ilisha) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. In Sindh, the Indus burst its banks near Sukkur on 8 August, submerging the village of Mor Khan Jatoi. The right bank side is also leveed from Guddu barrage to Lake Manchar. ", U.S. diplomat Richard Holbrooke said, shortly before his death in 2010, that he believed that falling water levels in the Indus River "could very well precipitate World War III. In the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, e.g.  The floods caused considerable damage; an estimated 434 civilians were killed, with 5.3 million people and 1,524,773 homes affected. The first West Eurasian empire to annex the Indus Valley was the Persian Empire, during the reign of Darius the Great. It is attested 176 times in its text, 94 times in the plural, and most often used in the generic sense of "river". The Indus River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – especially the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. "But we need to be concerned about that. The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. APHG - FRQ #1. Example of Human / Environment Interaction - Rivers and Early Civilizations All of the River Valley Civilizations - Ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, China, and India - depended on rivers for food, building materials, transportation, and many other things. There are several other tributaries nearby, which may possibly form a longer stream than Sênggê Kanbab, but unlike the Sênggê Kanbab, are all dependent on snowmelt. Tarbela Dam in Pakistan is constructed on the Indus River, while the controversial Kalabagh dam is also being constructed on Indus river. For other uses, see, Satellite image of the Indus River basin in, sfn error: no target: CITEREFParpola2015 (, water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960, "Indus water flow data in to reservoirs of Pakistan", "Early Indian history: Linguistic and textual parameters", The Reconstruction of Prehistoric South Asian Language Contact, "564 Charul Bharwada & Vinay Mahajan, Lost and forgotten: grasslands and pastoralists of Gujarat", "Indus re-enters India after two centuries, feeds Little Rann, Nal Sarovar", "Was the Ramayana actually set in and around today's Afghanistan? , Vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta are threatened by the reduced inflow of fresh water, along with extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming. The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river. , Originally, the delta used to receive almost all of the water from the Indus river, which has an annual flow of approximately 180 billion cubic metres (240 billion cubic yards), and is accompanied by 400 million tonnes (390 million long tons) of silt. Another new barrage called "Sindh barrage" is planned as terminal barrage on Indus River. , Large-scale diversion of the river's water for irrigation has raised far-reaching issues. Huang He River Valley.  Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of India[a] towards Gilgit-Baltistan, and then flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh. Here, the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Stone Age people hunted animals and gathered wild plants to eat. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges of Tibet, the Indian states and union territories of Ladakh and Himachal Pradesh and the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time. It gradually bends to the south and descends into the Punjab plains at Kalabagh, Pakistan. According to the World Wildlife Fund it is one of the most threatened cetaceans with only about 1,000 still existing.  Its left-bank tributary in Ladakh is the Zanskar River, and its left-bank tributary in the plains is the Panjnad River which itself has five major tributaries, namely the Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers. Name: _____ AP Human Geography Summer Assignment 2016-2017 A large part of being successful in AP Human Geography is having a base knowledge of the globe, important places, important physical features, and key terms. The smooth-coated otters in the Indus River represent a subspecies found nowhere else, the Sindh otter (Lutrogale perspicillata sindica). and lasted about 5 to 700 years. Only 40 Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. The rain continued for the next two months, devastating large areas of Pakistan. Major carp become common, and chameleonfish (Badis), mullet (Sicamugil) and swamp eel (Monopterus) appear. Indus River Valley. The map also shows the major cities and some of the resources available Deeply, deeply concerned. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. As a result, damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Historians and scholars describe the work found on pots as very high quality with unusually beautiful designs. Many pots, vessels, bowls, seals and cloths have been discovered. Daniela_Alfaro16. , The ethnicities of the Indus Valley (Pakistan and Northwest India) have a greater amount of ANI (or West Eurasian) admixture than other South Asians, including inputs from Western Steppe Herders, with evidence of more sustained and multi-layered migrations from the west. The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice.  Sindh is a fertile region and often called the "breadbasket" of the country; the damage and toll of the floods on the local agrarian economy was said to be extensive. . Irrigation itself is increasing soil salinization, reducing crop yields and in some cases rendering farmland useless for cultivation.. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. Indus Valley Large Visual Map. You will need to complete the work in this packet over the summer in order in the list of rivers mentioned in the hymn of Nadistuti sukta. Practice: Indus Valley civilization. It is home to around 25 amphibian species.  The Indus is the longest river of Pakistan.. AP Human Geography. After Pakistan came into existence, a water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River and its two tributaries the Jhelum River & the Chenab River independently of upstream control by India.. The Indus Basin Irrigation System is the "largest contiguous irrigation system developed over the past 140 years" anywhere in the world. I don't know the answer to that question," he says. Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. AP Human Geography- Unit 6, Part 2. (BBC) No one for sure knows what actually happened to the river valley civilization because there are no records. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term, but issued a strong warning: "There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus," says David Grey, the World Bank's senior water advisor in South Asia. Indus river is sacred to Hindus. The longest river in modern day Paistan is the Indus River which the civilization was named after; one of the mountains in this region was the Himalayas, with the Indus river starting from there it flows for some 3,180 kilometers before … ", Over the years factories on the banks of the Indus River have increased levels of water pollution in the river and the atmosphere around it. Hinduism-Indus River Valley (northern India/Pakistan) Christianity-Rome (Italy) What two areas are the hearths of all of the world's five primary religions? 918 terms. Rivers were good places to look for food. Alexander's admiral Nearchus set out from the Indus Delta to explore the Persian Gulf, until reaching the Tigris River. xxashleyxxcxx. Key Vocabulary & Thematic Questions for Discussion Chapter 1 – From the Origins of Agriculture to the First River Valley Civilizations Vocabulary: As you complete your textbook reading in chapter 1, define these key terms, people, and places to assist in your understanding of the content. The Indus Valley were later dominated by the Mauryan and Kushan Empires, Indo-Greek Kingdoms, Indo-Scythians and Hepthalites. It flows swiftly across Hazara and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The seven original cultural hearths are the Nile River valley, the Indus River valley, the Wei-Huang valley, the Ganges River valley, Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica and West Africa. Southwest Asia and Central Europe. "But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change," and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. It supports the Chashma Barrage near Dera Ismail Khan for irrigation use and flood control and the Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan which also produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. It includes the location of the Indus Valley Civilization, as well as other countries that surround it. In other languages of the region, the river is known as دریائے سندھ (Darya-ī Sindh) in Urdu सिन्धु (Sindhu) in Hindi, سنڌو (Sindhu) in Sindhi, سندھ (Sindh) in Shahmukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਨਦੀ (Sindh Nadī) in Gurmukhī Punjabi, اباسين (Abāsin lit. In November 2011, satellite images showed that the Indus river had re-entered India, feeding Great Rann of Kutch, Little Rann of Kutch and a lake near Ahmedabad known as Nal Sarovar. 84 terms. Reported 18 August 2009", "SEPA orders polluting factory to stop production", "Fishing poison killing Indus dolphins, PA told", "Threat to dolphin: Govt bans fishing between Guddu and Sukkur", "Almost all plastic in the ocean comes from just 10 rivers - 30.11.2017", "Export of Plastic Debris by Rivers into the Sea", "Asia flooding plunges millions into misery", "Pakistan issues flooding 'red alert' for Sindh province", "BBC News – Pakistan floods: World Bank to lend $900m for recovery", "BBC News – Millions of Pakistan children at risk of flood diseases", "Pakistan floods: Oxfam launches emergency aid response", Government of Pakistan Pakmet.com.pk Retrieved on 19 September 2011, "PM okays Indus river barrage to mitigate water woes", "Government to launch Kandhkot-Ghotki bridge over River Indus next month: Sindh CM", "Restore Pakistan's rivers, handle floods, droughts and climate change", "Pakistan: Getting More from Water (see Page 50)", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law, Indus River watershed map (World Resources Institute), First raft and kayak descents of the Indus headwaters in Tibet, Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting's project on water issues in South Asia, Sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilisation, Inventions of the Indus Valley Civilisation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indus_River&oldid=992979770, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2016, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from September 2010, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia external links cleanup from April 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.