[101] The following year it was responsible for the vast majority of the 1,000 explosions that occurred in Northern Ireland. This practice was frequently criticised by all sections of the political establishment in Northern Ireland as “summary justice“. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. One aim of the Agreement is that all paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland cease their activities and disarm by May 2000. The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) have described the killing as a “war crime“. Both reject the Good Friday Agreement and continue to engage in paramilitary activity. A Belfast newspaper has claimed that secret documents show that half of the IRA’s top men were also British informers.[203]. [389][391] On 4 April 2006, Donaldson was shot dead by the Real IRA splinter group at his retreat near Glenties in County Donegal. [388] In December 2005, Sinn Féin member and former IRA volunteer Denis Donaldson appeared at a press conference in Dublin and confessed to being a British spy since the early 1980s. [77] The 1977 edition of the Green Book, an induction and training manual used by the IRA, describes the strategy of the “Long War” in these terms: Confidential documents released on 30 December 2008 from the British state archives show that the IRA leadership proposed a ceasefire and peace talks to the British government in 1978. [356] Supporters argue that as the IRA was a clandestine organisation it was forced to use extralegal methods of fundraising, which were justified in order to achieve a political goal. [46][47] Nine out of thirteen IRA units in Belfast sided with the Provisionals in December 1969, roughly 120 activists and 500 supporters. The IRA was formed in 1913 as the Irish Volunteers, at a time when all of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom. [138] He was released four days later without charge. [227] In August Kevin McGuigan was shot dead, believed to be a revenge killing by former IRA members over the shooting death of former Belfast IRA commander Gerard Davison three months earlier. [365] This was echoed shortly after by an IRA statement issued at Easter, saying that criminality within the ranks would not be tolerated. [20][21] It was designated a terrorist organisation in the United Kingdom and an illegal organisation in the Republic of Ireland, both of whose authority it rejected. [61][62] The following month a three-day riot began in the Bogside area of Derry, following a march by the Protestant Apprentice Boys of Derry. [25][26] The Troubles had begun shortly before when a largely Catholic, nonviolent civil rights campaign was met with violence from both Ulster loyalists and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC),[27] culminating in the August 1969 riots and deployment of British troops. [16][17] The campaign was supported by arms and funding from Libya[18] and from some groups in the United States. [354][355] The IRA also raised funds by running legitimate businesses such as taxi firms, nightclubs, offices, and nursing homes. [199][200][201], The IRA traditionally uses a well-known signature in its public statements, which are all issued under the pseudonym of “P. [171] The IRA has received some training and support from the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). [65] The leadership structure at battalion and company level was the same: each had its own commanding officer, quartermaster, explosives officer and intelligence officer. [1] The next most important department was engineering, which manufactured improvised explosive devices and improvised mortars. [108][110] Twenty-two people were killed in the next three days, including six civilians killed by the British Army in the Ballymurphy massacre on 9 August,[109][111] and in Belfast 7,000 Catholics and 2,000 Protestants were forced from their homes by the rioting. [420], Media related to Provisional Irish Republican Army at Wikimedia Commons, Irish republican paramilitary group during the Troubles, "PIRA" redirects here. The IRA ceasefire in 1997 formed part of a process that led to the 1998 Belfast (Good Friday) Agreement. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. However, under his usage, the name was written and pronounced according to Irish orthography and pronunciation as “P. [351][353], To fund its campaign, the IRA was allegedly involved in criminal activities such as robberies, counterfeiting, protection rackets, kidnapping for ransom, fuel laundering and cigarette smuggling. In their assessment of the IRA campaign, the British Army would describe these years, 1970–72, as the “insurgency phase”. [256], The IRA was responsible for more deaths than any other organisation during the Troubles. A brief overview of the history of Ireland and the events that led to the political division of the island. In recent times, however, the history of Northern Ireland has been marred by political tension, sectarian feuding and paramilitary killing. [60], PIRA re-enacment in Galbally, County Tyrone (2009). [149] Harold Wilson‘s secret 1971 meeting with IRA leaders with the help of John O’Connell angered the Irish government; Garret FitzGerald wrote 30 years later that “the strength of the feelings of our democratic leaders … was not, however, publicly ventilated at the time” because Wilson was a former and possible future British prime minister. In the 1987 Irish General Election, they won only 1.7% of the votes cast. The Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA or PIRA) was[5][6][7][8] an Irish republican paramilitary organisation that sought to remove Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and bring about an independent republic encompassing all of Ireland. [354] The PSNI, the IMC, and the British and Irish governments all accused the IRA of involvement in the biggest bank raid in British history—the 2004 Northern Bank robbery—when £26.5 million was stolen, which the IRA denied. [167], Few Protestant voters voted for Sinn Féin. [191][192] The strategy involved a coalition including Sinn Féin, the SDLP and the Irish government acting in concert to apply leverage to the British government, with the IRA's armed campaign starting and stopping as necessary, and an option to call off the ceasefire if negotiations failed. [227] The statement was in response to the recent killings of two former IRA members. [25] Traditional republicans refused to vote on the "National Liberation Front" and it was passed by twenty-nine votes to seven. [109] By the late 1970s the IRA had restructured the organisation,[322] with the British Army estimating the IRA had 500 full-time volunteers. Change ). [160] The electoral successes led to the IRA's armed campaign being pursued in parallel with increased electoral participation by Sinn Féin. [266], All levels of the organisation were entitled to send delegates to General Army Conventions. [379][380] It was agreed that the IRA would be responsible for policing there, but the agreement was short-lived. The British refused the offer. [165] However, by the 1992 UK General Election, the SDLP won 184,445 votes and four seats to Sinn Féin’s 78,291 votes and no seats. [313][314] The IRA saw the Irish War of Independence as a guerrilla war which accomplished some of its aims, with some remaining "unfinished business". [301] In the years that followed, IRA prisoners began to look towards South African politics and the example being set by the African National Congress. [354] It is estimated that, by the 1990s, the IRA needed £10.5 million a year to operate. [258] According to CAIN, the IRA was responsible for 1,705 deaths, about 48% of the total conflict deaths. Website +44 28 9024 0504. [189][190] A new strategy known as "TUAS" was revealed to the IRA's rank-and-file following the ceasefire, described as either "Tactical Use of Armed Struggle" to the Irish republican movement or "Totally Unarmed Strategy" to the broader Irish nationalist movement. If you are feeling generous and would like to make a small (or Large ) donation then please don’t let me stop you. [1] For day-to-day purposes, authority was vested in the Army Council which, as well as directing policy and taking major tactical decisions, appointed a chief-of-staff from one of its number or, less often, from outside its ranks. According to journalist Brendan O’Brien, “the thinking was that the war would be short and successful. [119] Commentators including Suzanne Breen have stated that the IRA was the only organisation capable of carrying out the raid. The IRA’s armed campaign, primarily in Northern Ireland but also in England and mainland Europe, caused the deaths of approximately 1,800 people. $157.98 per adult. On 28 July 2005 the IRA announced an end to the armed campaign, stating that it would work to achieve its aims solely by peaceful political means, with volunteers to dump all weapons and to end all paramilitary activity. [158][166] A planned escalation of the England bombing campaign in 1985 was prevented when six IRA volunteers, including Martina Anderson and the Brighton bomber Patrick Magee, were arrested in Glasgow. [258], It is unclear how many people joined the IRA during the Troubles, as it did not keep detailed records of personnel. [298] This was in contrast to the Official IRA and the Irish National Liberation Army, both of which adopted clearly defined Marxist positions. (See Oliver Cromwell; Battle of the Boyne.) [295], The IRA's goal was an all-Ireland democratic socialist republic. Post was not sent - check your email addresses! The Provisional IRA emerged in December 1969, following a split in the republican movement. [332] Harrison's conservative estimate was that he smuggled 2,000–2,500 weapons and approximately 1,000,000 rounds of ammunition to Ireland. The subsequent Anglo-Irish Treaty, which partitioned Ireland into the Irish Free Stateand Northern Ireland, which remained part of the United Kingdom, caused … The Northern Ireland Government was dominated by the Unionist party and as a part of the United Kingdom anti-Catholic laws that had been passed in the nineteenth century were still in force. [124] According to Horgan and Taylor’s report, the IRA are also involved in several legitimate businesses including taxi firms, construction, restaurants and pubs. Northern Ireland comprised six north eastern counties of Ireland in the province of Ulster. [193] In March 1995 Patrick Mayhew set out three conditions for Sinn Féin being admitted to multi-party talks. [418] Also in 2008, Republican Action Against Drugs (RAAD) was formed in Derry. [168] The plans, modelled on the Tet Offensive during the Vietnam War, relied on the element of surprise which was lost when the ship's captain informed French authorities of four earlier shipments of weapons, which allowed the British Army to deploy appropriate countermeasures.[169]. [159] The hunger strike leader Bobby Sands and Anti H-Block activist Owen Carron were elected to the British Parliament, and two other protesting prisoners were elected to the Dáil. [173] The speech was given in London the following month, with Peter Brooke stating that the British government would not give in to violence but offering significant political change if violence stopped, ending his statement by saying: The British government has no selfish, strategic or economic interest in Northern Ireland: Our role is to help, enable and encourage  ... Partition is an acknowledgement of reality, not an assertion of national self-interest. [179][180] In 2001, three Irish men, who later became known as the Colombia Three, were arrested after allegedly training Colombian guerrillas, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), in bomb making and urban warfare techniques.