From 1765 he attended the college of the Oratorians at Arras, and in 1769 he was awarded a scholarship to the famous college of Louis-le-Grand in Paris, where he distinguished himself in philosophy and law. 2 (2011): 188-213 by Elisabeth Cross, Lazare Carnot, republican patriot, by Huntley Dupre, p. 48, Collection Complète des Lois, Décrets, Ordonnances, Réglements, p. 330, Mémoires de Charles Barbaroux, député à la convention nationale ..., Volume 5 by Charles Jean Marie Barbaroux, Charles O. Barbaroux, p. 62, "The journée of 20 June, the Brunswick Manifesto, the taking of the Tuileries, the end of the monarchy, the September massacres - A People's History of the French Revolution", "F. Furet & M. Ozouf (1989) A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution, p. 139", The French Revolution: From Enlightenment to Tyranny by Ian Davidson, p. xiv, 126, Mémoires de Charlotte Robespierre sur ses deux frères, p. 76, Jacques Pierre Brissot in America and France, 1788–1793: In Search of Better ... by Bette W. Oliver, p. 112, The French Legislative Assembly of 1791 by C. J. Mitchell, p. 174, "Maximilien, François, Marie, Isidore, Joseph de Robespierre — Base de données des députés français depuis 1789 — Assemblée nationale", The Works: With Memoirs of His Life and Writings by Robert Anderson, Volume 3 by John Moore, p. 377-379, The Enlightenment that Failed: Ideas, Revolution, and Democratic Defeat ... By Jonathan I. Israel, p. 483, The French Revolution: Faith, Desire and Politics by Noah Shusterman, p. 147, "All of His Power Lies in the Distaff: Robespierre, Women and the French Revolution", Oeuvres de Maximilien Robespierre, Band 9 by Maximilien Robespierre,p. His mother died when Robespierre was an infant and his father abandoned the family shortly after, leaving Robespierre and his siblings to be raised by their grandparents. On June 2 the decree was passed against 29 of them. ", Shusterman, Noah C. "All of His Power Lies in the Distaff: Robespierre, Women and the French Revolution. He probably made his maiden speech on May 18, 1789, and he was to speak more than 500 times during the life of the National Assembly. The Tennis Court Oath. In May he had successfully proposed that all new deputies be elected to the next legislature so that, as a new body, it would better express the people’s will. The Girondins—who favoured political but not social democracy and who controlled the government and the civil service—accused Robespierre of dictatorship from the first sessions of the National Convention. Maximilien de Robespierre was a radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution. His speech on December 3 rallied the hesitant. By 1788 Robespierre was already well known for his altruism. Bienvenu, Richard T. (1968) The Ninth of Thermidor: The Fall of Robespierre. Proofs of his growing popularity were the ferocious attacks made by the royalist press on this “Demosthenes,” “who believes everything he says,” this “monkey of Mirabeau’s” (the comte de Mirabeau, a politician who wanted to create a constitutional assembly). Maximilien RobespierreBiography. "The Political Ideas of Maximilien Robespierre during the Period of the Convention". In accordance with the Jacobins, they controlled the time known as the Reign of Terror, due to their influence in the accumulation of murders of those opposed to the revolution. online, Sanson, Henri (1876). Abbe Sieyes . Verso. Robespierre was the son of a lawyer in Arras. He and other representatives of the Third Estate joined together to form the short-lived National Assembly, which was eventually replaced by the Legislative Assembly and, later, the National Convention. McPhee, Peter. Maximilien is born Maximilien Robespierre was born on May 6th, 1758 in Arras, France. Contrary to the long-held belief that Robespierre led an isolated life, he often visited local notables and mingled with the young people of the district. Recueil de documents pour l'histoire du club des Jacobins de Paris (in French). Maximilien Robespierre was a law student (a very good one). "Revolutionary Connection: 'The Incorruptible' Maximilian Robespierre and the 'Schoolmaster of Chartism' Bronterre O’Brien. In April 1790, he preside… Maximilien Robespierre lost his head—literally. Q. Maximilien Robespierre is best known in Frnech history for. Maximilien Robespierre, radical Jacobin leader and one of the principal figures in the French Revolution. enforcing the … (1849) The life of Robespierre, https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/650505, The French Revolution — Part 2 — English subtitles, Biography: essential elements of his life, Conspiracy and Terror in the French Revolution – Marisa Linton (Kingston University) Public Lecture, The Robespierre Problem – Peter McPhee (University of Melbourne) and Colin Jones (University of London) discussion, Robespierre, l'homme qui nous divise le plus. (Date was actually just during 1781, not January 1st.) Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Maximilien Robespierre has always been known to be controversial and misunderstood. Content on Alpha History is written specifically for students at middle school, high school and undergraduate levels. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Putnam's sons. On May 26, 1793, Robespierre called on the people “to rise in insurrection.” Five days later he supported a decree of the National Convention indicting the Girondin leaders and Dumouriez’s accomplices. Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre was a French lawyer and statesman who was one of the best-known and most influential figures of the French Revolution. OCLC 317736774, Andress, David. La société des Jacobins: Mars à novembre 1794. He took a radical, democratic stance and was known as the Incorruptible for his dedication to civic morality. His private practice provided him with a comfortable income. Edited by François Furet and Mona Ozouf, "Georges Danton | French revolutionary leader", LAST LETTER OF MARIE-ANTOINETTE Centre historique des Archives nationale, Non-Violence and the French Revolution: Political Demonstrations in Paris ... by Micah Alpaugh, p. 158, Press in the French Revolution by John Thomas Gilchrist, p. 19, "Rousseau, Robespierre, and the French Revolution by James Read, p. 4", "On the Principles of Political Morality, February 1794", "Rousseau, Robespierre, and the French Revolution by James Read, p. 3", The public prosecutor of the terror, Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville, p. 250, The Morning Chronicle (18 August) and Gazette Nationale ou Le Moniteur Universel (29 July), Collection complète des lois, décrets d'intérêe général, traités ..., Band 7, p. 149, Nationality and Citizenship in Revolutionary France: The Treatment of Foreigners by Michael Rapport, p. 203, History of the French Revolution by Adolphe Thiers, p. 426, A People's History of the French Revolution by Éric Hazan, p. 361-362, 19, "P. McPhee (2013) "My Strength and My Health Are not Great Enough": Political Crises and Medical Crises in the Life of Maximilien Robespierre, 1790–1794. He denounced the secret intrigues of the court and of the royalists, their collusion with Austria, the unpreparedness of the army, and the possible treason of aristocratic officers whose dismissal he demanded in February 1792. "Robespierre, Old Regime Feminist? At the same time, the scarcity of food and the rising prices created a revolutionary mood. A death mask made by Madame Tussaud has been used to recreate the likeness of Maximilien de Robespierre - the infamous revolutionary leader. He opposed the royal veto, the abuses of ministerial power, and religious and racial discrimination. "Living the Revolutionary Melodrama: Robespierre's Sensibility and the Construction of Political Commitment in the French Revolution. In: A Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution. His mother died in July of 1764 due to complications related to childbirth and his father, François de Robespierre, left the children to travel Europe. Emeritus Teaching Assistant in History of the French Revolution, University of Paris. As a representative of the Third Estate, Robespierre promoted the interests of the lower classes. Mémoires authentiques de Maximilien Robespierre, p. 527, Cordeliers and Girondins: the prehistory of the republic by, "Rodama: a blog of 18th century & Revolutionary French trivia: Robespierre chez Duplay - No.366 rue Saint-Honoré", Mémoires de Charlotte Robespierre sur ses deux frères, pp. His passionate fight for liberty won him more enemies, who called him a dangerous individual—and worse. Profile Books Ltd. Dunoyer, Alphonse (1913) The public prosecutor of the terror, Antoine Quentin Fouquier-Tinville. crises politiques, crises médicales dans la vie de Maximilien Robespierre, 1790-1794 », Annales historiques de la Révolution française, 371 | 2013, 137-152. The reverses suffered by the French army after France had declared war on Austria and Prussia had been foreseen by Robespierre, and, when invasion threatened, the people rallied to him. Linton, Marisa. The Reign of Terror took place between September 5, 1793, and July 27, 1794. On the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered Right to your inbox and the! Individual—And worse would like to print: Corrections more enemies, who went over to the Arras commoners in pre-Revolutionary! The Sansons: from Enlightenment to Tyranny of Thermidor: the Fall of Robespierre let us know you... His personality interesting, and the `` indifference '' of the French Revolution..! 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