The distance between Paris and Montmedy was around 200 miles (325 kilometres). Louis XVI's indecision on how to deal with revolutionary demands was one of the causes of the forcible transfer of the royal family from the Palace of Versailles to the Tuileries in Paris on 6 October 1789 after Versailles had been attacked by an angry mob. Find more at www.forgottenbooks.com This book is a reproduction of an … [London] Alston Books [1962] (OCoLC)551363813: Named Person: Louis, King of France; Louis, King of France: Material Type: Biography, Fiction: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Alexandre Dumas This would mean receiving communion from a constitutional priest. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use. Jerome Pétion, the Republican politician who later became mayor of Paris, was amazed at the reception afforded the king on his return to the city. Instead, he regularly attended Mass at a small chapel in the Louvre, where the service was performed by refractory or non-juring priests. Despite a series of blunders, the royal entourage escaped Paris and travelled to within 30 kilometres of its goal. Royalists had won a victory. It had … The first Legislative Assembly was composed of. Louis XVI on his motives for the flight to Varennes (1791) him shall be hanged." They are captured and returned to France. constitutional monarchy, others of a republic, and as some were even what we should now this song printed and sent in various directions. Outside Paris, the king and his family would meet a platoon of Hussars and make their way to Montmedy, a fortress in north-eastern France manned by loyal soldiers. The plan, hatched by Count Axel von Fersen and supported by Marie Antoinette, was to travel by coach to Montmedy, a fortress near the German border garrisoned by royalist troops. The king’s failed attempt to escape Paris was dubbed the flight to Varennes (something of a misnomer given the real objective of his flight was Montmedy). Mirabeau favoured a strong monarchy with some of the king’s arbitrary powers checked by a constitution and a legislative assembly. down with the veto then! Another hour was lost near Châlons when the king’s carriage fell and damaged its harness sometime around dawn on June 21st. A minor controversy arose in April when the king learned he would be expected to attend a public Easter Mass at Saint-Germain l’Auxerrois, also at the Louvre. He gave the following statement to explain his flight to Varennes … What is more certain is that Fersen was operating with the financial backing of Sweden’s Gustav III, who wanted the French royal family to escape the dangers of Paris. It was an attempted escape by the Royal Family to reach Austria. Primary Sources. 21st June 1791. However, it was unsuccessful. At 15 he had married the Austrian … all rights,—as well as of the titles "Sire" and "Your Majesty,"—caused a great VG £200-300 The royal Flight to Varennes, 20th-21st June 1791, was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI, the Queen Marie Antoinette and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution. French port. relay station, had no chance to stop the fugitives there. URL: https://alphahistory.com/frenchrevolution/flight-to-varennes/ It was sung to the men, who enthusiastically roared it on On the night of June 21, 1791, Louis XVI and his family tried to escape, incognito, from Paris. If any king could have coped with the French Revolution it was not Louis XVI. It was only the well-to-do in France The king explains his flight to Varennes (1791) In late June 1791, King Louis XVI appeared before a special committee of the National Constituent Assembly. manufacture them in quantities. The royal family’s escape attempt encountered several delays that put them hours behind schedule and contributed to their eventual discovery and arrest. Privately, the king refused to attend any Mass given by a constitutional priest, believing this might endanger his immortal soul. the king only the power to veto (forbid) the execution of any new law for four years. It was as if those around him thought that he had returned home after a few days’ absence. The king had spent two years mouthing support for the constitution but his actions in June 1791 showed only contempt for it. composing the words and tune of what was to be a famous national song. Already all valets were in attendance, wearing their usual court dress. The Legislative Assembly first met on. One of her messages was, "If you love Appalled by the growing radicalism of the revolution, particularly its attempts to regulate and control the church, Louis XVI agreed to abscond from the city. The midnight escape of the disguised royal family out a forgotten back door of call Marie Antoinette "Madam Veto," in addition to the other horrid names they had already I was perplexed by what I saw.”. Plans, however, were changed once the Royal family was caught and arrested by the townspeople of Varennes. While the Assembly had every intention of creating a limited or constitutional monarchy, after June 1791, such an idea … The king was arrested at 11pm on June 21st and dispatched back to Paris at 7am the following morning. By this stage, the escape party was some four hours behind schedule – but with around half the journey to Montmedy completed, the royals were confident their plan would succeed. trouble were deeply scorned by the mob, the rabble now proudly termed themselves the "men So he sprang on a horse, and, by Effects & consequences? The flight to Varennes refers to a failed attempt by King Louis XVI and his family to escape from revolutionary Paris in June 1791. The royal family was returned to Paris and reinstalled at the Tuileries Palace, this time under a more visible guard. Marie Antoinette left the Tuileries as planned but spent several minutes wandering lost in the streets outside, before eventually locating her carriage. especially by the word "veto." The man who thus discovered the royal flight just as the horses were being changed at a The king’s escape was delayed by a nighttime visit from the Marquis de Lafayette and Jean-Sylvain Bailly, who kept him talking longer than expected. The flight to Varennes by Browning, Oscar, 1837-1923. Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Steve Thompson The king and his family were arrested at Varennes and returned to Paris. Hence it was called "la Marseillaise". The Paris sections and radical journalists demanded the immediate abolition of the monarchy and the creation of a republic. return to his capital with their aid and dictate terms instead of having them forced upon The king's brothers and the principal Royalists strongly advised the king to leave Paris, the allowed to continue, these sullen people would not let him go, declaring they had sent a Unfortunately, far too elaborate preparations were made for this venture, so that the The slow return journey was accomplished under the His Majesty was treated, as Pétion noted, like nothing had happened: “After a few minutes, we moved [to] the king’s apartments. sensation abroad, and induced Prussia and Austria to sign a treaty, whereby they bound when was the flight to Varennes? The flight to Varennes was a turning point in the French Revolution because it exposed the untrustworthiness of the king and the unworkability of the newly implemented constitution. The Flight to Varennes The king's brothers and the principal Royalists strongly advised the king to leave Paris, the center of the storm, and join the émigrés and the armies they were raising, so as to return to his capital with their aid and dictate terms instead of having them forced upon him. a short cut, reached Varennes and roused its citizens before the arrival of the coach. the window, and was recognized by the well-known features stamped on every coin in his protected him the rest of the way; but this escort, by some misunderstanding, was waiting Final meeting of the Assembly post constitution establishment. It is often said that Fersen and the queen were lovers, however, evidence for this is circumstantial. The Flight to Varennes occurred in June of 1791. indicates the general belief among the mob:—, "Ah, well! bestowed upon her. recover his power. the king's sister and daughter, who therefore took turns sitting in each other's lap. government affairs, while some of the most rabid club men came to the front in their passed by the Assembly. Drouet allowed the royal party to proceed but raised the alarm, leading to the royal family being stopped at Varennes, 20 miles (32 kilometres) north of Sainte-Menehould and 31 miles (50 kilometres) short of their destination. Publisher: Alpha History The royal Flight to Varennes (French: Fuite à Varennes) dur­ing the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a sig­nif­i­cant episode in the French Rev­o­lu­tion in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie An­toinette, and their im­me­di­ate fam­ily un­suc­cess­fully at­tempted to es­cape from Paris in order to ini­ti­ate a counter-rev­o­lu­tion at the head … stead. messenger to Paris, and that he must await the orders of the Assembly. They hoped to reach Montmedy, 500 km north east of the city; at the time Montmedy was a Royalist He was 19 when he succeeded his grandfather, Louis XV, in 1774. they do not understand, and the following dialogue, overheard between two peasants, French Revolution memory quiz – events 1789-91, French Revolution memory quiz – events 1792-95, French Revolution memory quiz – events to 1788, French Revolution memory quiz – terms (I), French Revolution memory quiz – terms (II), French Revolution memory quiz – terms (III), Princess Marie-Thérèse’s account of the flight to Varennes (1791), A note left by Louis XVI after fleeing Paris (1791), Louis XVI on his motives for the flight to Varennes (1791), De Bouille on his role in the flight to Varennes (1791), The Assembly responds to the flight to Varennes (1791), Henri Grégoire on the flight to Varennes (1791). These troops contemplated an assault to rescue Louis – but fearing the king and his family would be massacred, they refused to attack. hastily armed with any weapon they could procure. Stripping the king of his powers would alienate him from the revolution and lead it to failure. to do their duty and come and defend their king. A large contingent of Royalist troops arrived as the king’s carriage was about to depart Varennes. A number of factors caused Louis XVI to lose whatever faith he had in the revolution. One sheet reached Marseilles just as a More Information . dangerous prisoners, the royal family could at last rest, and were soon relieved to learn Title: “The flight to Varennes” HistoryMaker. decided to escape in disguise (June, 1791). The king was appalled by the Civil Constitution of the Clergy and its implications for the church in France. De Bouille on his role in the flight to Varennes (1791) the king of practically Of course, the king and deputies knew what all the words in this parties in it were called, from the seats they occupied, "the Right," "the Left," "the that night, and haunted by the desire to supply the necessary song, sat up all night, Citation information This incident only confirmed what most already suspected: that the king and his family were virtual prisoners in Paris. Prodded by the queen, … The royal family had been brought to Paris after the events of the 5 th October 1789 when a mob stormed the Versailles Palace. It was further delayed near the city gates by a wedding party. 1. Bookstore. immediately declared, and troops hastily dispatched to the northeastern frontier, the most Still, there always are persons ready to explain even what “The flight to Varennes opened up the second great schism of the revolution. 2. The mayor immediately had some copies of Sans-Culottes discovered an. by secret means that the king's brother (who had started at the same time as they) had The king’s failed attempt to escape Paris was dubbed the flight to Varennes (something of a misnomer given the real objective of his flight was Montmedy). Flight to Varennes (La route de Varennes). As "veto" was thus taken to mean something hateful and objectionable, the people began to Mirabeau’s political vision for France, however, was fundamentally conservative. A note left by Louis XVI after fleeing Paris (1791) His working alliance with the National Constituent Assembly and his acceptance of the Constitution of 1791 were exposed as fraudulent. Some regiments were therefore stationed at Strassburg, where the As all the roads were bad, and all vehicles very clumsy in make room for the new Legislative Assembly, to which, by a strange provision, none of the Then the royal family The question of what to do with the king after Varennes widened the gulf between political moderates and radical republicans. stole out of the palace in small detachments, to join the great traveling coach which had Home. The result was that two members were dispatched from Paris to bring back their Majesties, The royal family was returned to Paris and reinstalled at the Tuileries Palace, this time under a more visible guard. They were located and detained the following day and returned to the capital. Back in Paris, the king’s escape was discovered around the time he was passing Châlons. carried out, the Austrian Emperor died, and was succeeded by his son, a nephew of Marie saloon-keepers, brigands, and criminals of the lowest class, men, in short, whom it would Another factor in Louis’ decision to flee Paris was his devout religious faith. constitution meant, but the common people, who had no education, were greatly mystified, The royal family accordingly decided to depart; but, knowing that any open attempt to was at Varennes, also, that the king expected to meet a military escort, which would have Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. the king, who naturally felt anxious, stuck his head out of Publication date 1892 Topics History Publisher London : Swan, Sonnenschein & co. Collection cdl; americana Digitizing sponsor MSN Contributor University of California Libraries Language English. center of the storm, and join the �migr�s and the armies they were raising, so as to On the night of the 20/21st June 1791, King Louis XVI attempted to flee in an event that was later named the flight to Varennes.His plans were shrouded in secrecy, but he probably intended to flee to Montmedy in Lorraine, where he hoped to gain the protection of the royalist military commander and negotiate the terms of the new … To avoid this, Mirabeau became a virtual double agent. The royal Flight to Varennes (Fuite à Varennes) during the night of 20–21 June 1791 was a significant episode in the French Revolution in which King Louis XVI of France, his queen Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family unsuccessfully attempted to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution at the head of loyal … managed to escape, and that the queen's hairdresser had safely crossed the frontier with He was not aware of The It seemed as if the king had merely returned from a hunting expedition, and everyone was assisting him with his toilet. also the two members of the Assembly, who constantly talked politics to their weary for the Assembly had decreed, "Whoever applauds the king shall be flogged; whoever insults being suited to the new constitution. The various All Rights Reserved. Their failed adventure triggered a rush of crude propaganda that ridiculed the royals and their fumbling escape attempt. One was the advice of Honore Mirabeau. While he distrusted Mirabeau, the king seemed to accept his advice about retreating from Paris. In May 1791, Fersen devised a complicated escape plan that involved leaving the Tuileries through unguarded doors, changes of clothing, false passports, bodyguards, a taxi carriage through the backstreets of Paris and a planned exchange of carriages on the city’s outskirts. liable to attack. still out of work, and lacking everything except strong drink—were listening to call Communists, you can readily imagine that lively times were in store. While the royal family was thus held in durance vile, the people buried Rousseau and Even at full speed, such a journey would take an entire day and require around 20 stops for fresh horses. Elizabeth, the king's sister). William Doyle. The Constitution of 1791, which was in the throes of being finalised when the king absconded, was now a lame duck. face of the foe. without breeches," or sans-culottes, a name which they delighted to flaunt in the down with the veto!". Some went further and insisted the king be put on trial for treason against the constitution. Direct Link: 3.18- The Flight to Varennes mayor,—one of whose daughters played the accompaniment for him,—and saw tears But before these intentions could be The Flight to Varennes, or the royal family’s unsuccessful escape from Paris during the night of June 20-21, 1791, undermined the credibility of the king as a constitutional monarch and eventually led to the escalation of the crisis and the execution of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. leave the city would be hindered, and would tend to make their situation even more great pity there were now no patriotic songs for the soldiers to sing, the old ones not June 20-21 - The "Flight to Varennes" occurs when the royal family, including King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette, attempt to flee France. 3. The Flight to Varennes: Revolutionary Tradition and Les Mis Revolution 1789 People--The Monarchy--Desmoulins--Robespierre--Danton--Marat--Jacobins--Sans-culottes--Napoleon Events--Tennis Court Oath--Fall of the Bastille--October Days--Varennes--Declaration of War--Palace Invaded--Louis XVI Bourgeois dreams of a harmonious constitutional monarchy were shattered; the progress made since 1789 appeared to have been lost. Louis and his family were promptly detained and hustled back to Paris under guard. return!". While stopped there they were identified by the local postmaster, Jean-Baptiste Drouet who, according to legend, recognised the king from his portrait on a coin or assignat. On the night of the 20 th to the 21 st of June 1791 Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette and their children made an attempt to escape the Revolutionary forces of Paris. return! been built for a Russian lady (Marie Antoinette), traveling with her two daughters (Madam By the summer of 1791 the royal family had been living in the Tuileries in the heart of Paris for almost two years. children, the queen kept urging her brother to help them, and implored the French nobles every rumor, and distorting every fact they did not understand. king says to you, 'Pour out that soup,' and you have to pour it out! At Varennes, the king was recognised and identified by a local postmaster. Whatever public affection the king had enjoyed in early 1791 was shattered by the events of June 20th and 21st. The escape was planned over the preceding month by Count Axel von Fersen, a Swedish general and favourite of Marie Antoinette, who planned to sneak the royal family out of Paris to the loyalist stronghold at Montmedy, in north-eastern France. In seeing the king, in observing him closely, it was impossible to guess that something momentous had just happened. word of complaint, but kept the six-year-old prince quiet by gently In other words, the Assembly had decided that Louis XVI was “inviolable.” He could not be tried. Yet again, the new regime was faced with the challenge of reinventing national government. carters' frocks coming down to their knees,—the latter garment being even the only Conspirators claimed the king’s disappearance was evidence of a looming counter-revolution or foreign invasion. the 1st October 1791. It the apprehension of Louis XVI at Varennes. Exhibits. It contains 231,429 words in 354 pages and was updated on December 2nd 2020. Long term causes Short term causes On reentering their palace, where they were now openly guarded like Throughout those long hours of anxiety and martyrdom, Marie Antoinette never uttered one madly here or there at short notice, at the command of their leaders, many of whom were About the Publisher Forgotten Books publishes hundreds of thousands of rare and classic books. 20-21 june 1791. list the fundamental causes of the flight to Varennes was? blouses or Flight to Varennes: Featured in Macworld - one of the best history sites on the web. Flight to Varennes. Some accused high ranking city officials, including Bailly and Lafayette, of assisting the royal family to escape. In the end, Marie Antoinette was left languishing in the Conciergerie, while Louis XVI was seen as a coward and traitor to both the people of France, and to the Revolution. realm. 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