The predatory fish species were declining in part because of years of heavy fishing, the invasion of the Sea Lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) and the loss of spawning areas (Weseloh and Collier 2005). 1Grid ID is based on the standard UTM Military Grid Reference System, where the first 2 digits represent the UTM Zone, the following 2 letters indicate the 100 × 100 km standardized UTM grid, followed by 2 digits to represent the 10 × 10 km standardized UTM grid. iv + 68 pp. Despite the assertion made by Zaya and Howe (2009) that the Kentucky Coffee-tree seeds are not well-adapted to water dispersal, natural dispersal of seeds by rivers and streams is believed to be the only natural dispersal method available today; this may in part explain why the species is so frequently found on floodplains even though it otherwise grows well in upland environments. Forest Health Alert: Dog-strangling Vine (Cynanchum rossicum and C. louiseae) (PDF ; 260 Kb). Double-crested Cormorant (Phalocrocorax auritus) populations in the Great Lakes underwent dramatic declines throughout the 1960s and into the 1970s due predominantly to toxic contaminants affecting reproductive success (Weseloh and Collier 2005). Gymnocladus dioicus; Media in category "Gymnocladus dioicus" The following 46 files are in this category, out of 46 total. Drains, dams and other flood control measures upriver from floodplain occurrences can threaten Kentucky Coffee-tree populations occurring in this habitat type. Evidence in Ontario supports this theory as individuals in downstream floodplains are suspected to have originated from the seed-producing trees in the upstream population (Ambrose 1983; Giroux pers. comm. Because no native herbivores consume the toxic Kentucky Coffee-tree seeds, its dispersal ability is also greatly reduced. 275 pp. COSEWIC-designated Plant Species at Risk Inventory, Point Pelee National Park, including Sturgeon Creek Administrative Centre and Middle Island, 2007, Volume 1: Summary Report & Volume 2: Managed Area Element Status Assessments. Leaching and persistence of herbicides for kudzu (Pueraria montana) control on pine regeneration sites. Pages in category "Gymnocladus dioicus" This category contains only the following page. 2006). Vegetation communities and significant vascular plant species of Middle Island, Lake Erie. Zaya, D.N. Double-crested cormorants of the Great Lakes: changes in population size, breeding distribution and reproductive output between 1913 and 1991. This loss of genetic diversity in turn reduces plant fitness and increases the risk of extirpation by disease or other environmental stressors, human actions or stochastic events. Existing planted populations may be of some value to the recovery of the species (e.g., as sources of future seed stock) if they are known or suspected to be from Ontario stock. The distribution of Kentucky Coffee-tree is very restricted in Canada, where it occurs at the northern extent of its North American range. Most recently, detailed surveys have been performed on East Sister Island by Ontario Parks and on Middle Island by Jalava, In the mid-1980s, Carolinian Woodlands Recovery Team members J. Ambrose (pers. comm. Gymnocladus dioecious, or Bund canadian, or Kentucky coffee tree (lat. 2008. In Canada, Kentucky Coffee-tree occurs near the northern extent of its North American range. If feasible, plant ramets (or seedlings) from native sources at single-sex populations in natural settings with the intent of establishing mixed-gender populations. The word gymnocladus comes from the Greek–naked branch–referring to the few stout twigs, which are conspicuous year round. PRAIRIE TITAN® has fine bluish-green foliage and grows into a large upright but spreading tree up to sixty feet high and thirty feet wide. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement. Species at Risk Act Policies, Overarching Policy Framework [Draft]. Content (excluding the illustrations) may be used without permission, with appropriate credit to the source. Scientific Name: Gymnocladus Lam. Soil-site characteristics of Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioica) communities near Lake Erie. Gymnocladus dioicus in Kew Science Plants of the World online. The coordinates may not fall within critical habitat and are provided as a general location only. Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. The critical root radius is used to define a zone surrounding the tree to prevent damage or disturbance (such as soil compaction) to the roots, dripline[13] and soil. Kentucky Coffee-tree is rare or uncommon throughout its Canadian range in southwestern Ontario, with an estimated total abundance of fewer than 500 genetically-distinct mature trees. Species at Risk Biologist, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources – Alymer District, Alymer, Ontario. However, Buck (pers. Seeds that were observed to have washed downstream from one population in the Sydenham River did not germinate successfully, despite seemingly appropriate habitat and light conditions (Craig pers. Personal communications with J. Jalava, January 2011. Ottawa, Ontario. It has been prepared in cooperation with the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Essex Region Conservation Authority, St. Clair Region Conservation Authority and the Carolinian Canada Coalition. For sites around Lake Erie, Limbird et al. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. The identification of critical habitat for Kentucky Coffee-tree is based on habitat suitability and site occupancy by Kentucky Coffee-tree. Personal communications with J. Jalava, March 2011. Augmenting single-sex populations, particularly with opposite-sex individuals (to achieve sexual reproduction) but also same-sex individuals (to improve abundance and ensure both sexes are represented), will lead to improved genetic diversity and increased seed production (including increased probability of successful germination of seeds) which in theory will allow the species to naturally colonize nearby suitable habitat and establish self-sustaining populations. Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. Populations on the Lake Erie Islands are usually in shallow-soiled open Common Hackberry-dominated limestone woodland (COSEWIC 2000). Personal communications with J. Jalava, December 2006. 4A wildlife species that is likely to become an endangered species if nothing is done to reverse the factors leading to its extirpation or extinction. Particularly susceptible are edge trees; many occurrences of Kentucky Coffee-tree in Ontario consist of trees found along edge habitats. Carpinus caroliniana. Jalava, J.V., J. Baker, K. Beriault, A. Boyko, A. Brant, B. Buck, C. Burant, D. Campbell, W. Cridland, S. Dobbyn, K. Frohlich, L. Goodridge, M. Ihrig, N. Kiers, D. Kirk, D. Lindblad, T. Van Oostrom, D. Pierrynowski, B. Porchuk, P. Robertson, M. L. Tanner, A. Thomson and T. Whelan. Personal communications with J. Jalava, March 2011. Special plant abstract for Gymnocladus dioicus (Kentucky Coffee-tree). Fish and Wildlife Branch. 1994. Gymnocladus dioicus: Kentucky Coffeetree 1. The increase in the number of nesting cormorants since the 1980s has led to a corresponding increase in the damage and subsequent death of trees on Middle Island and East Sister Island, including mature Kentucky Coffee-trees (Hebert et al. 1990. Reproduction at all other populations is limited to vegetative (i.e., clonal[10]) reproduction through ramets. Corylus colurna. Four of the 33 populations have not been reported in more than 20 years and are categorized as historic. Peterborough, Ontario. More detailed information on the location of critical habitat, to support protection of the species and its habitat, may be requested on a need-to-know basis by contacting Environment Canada – Canadian Wildlife Service. Jong, C. 2011. 4The area presented is that of the site boundary (rounded up to the nearest 1 ha); an approximation based on a maximum extent that may contain critical habitat within the grid square. The Sydenham River, Florence population has an accuracy of only 1 km which is not adequate to identify critical habitat; furthermore, the area was searched but the species was not found in 1996 and 1997. Lebedyk, D., pers. 2012; McClain and Jackson 1980). Kentucky Coffee-tree is frequently planted as an ornamental tree, often from non-native stock originating in the United States. Personal communications with K. Hayes, February 2007. The following individuals provided input during the development of the document: Tammy Dobbie and Vicki McKay (Point Pelee National Park), Jane Bowles (University of Western Ontario), John Ambrose (Biological Consultant), Barb Boysen (Ontario Forest Gene Association), Clint Jacobs (Walpole Island Heritage Centre, Walpole Island First Nation), Donald Craig (Forestry Consultant), Gerry Waldron (Ecological Consultant), Ken Elliott, P. Allen Woodliffe, Donald Kirk, Karolyne Pickett, Karine Beriault, Graham Buck, and Karen Hartley (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources), Muriel Andreae (St. Clair Region Conservation Authority), Dan Lebedyk, Paul Giroux and Mike Nelson (Essex Region Conservation Authority) and, Emma Followes and Kate Hayes (formerly Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario). The Kentucky coffeetree, Gymnocladus dioicus, is a tree in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the legume family Fabaceae, native to the Midwest and Upper South of North America.The seed may be roasted and used as a substitute for coffee beans; however, unroasted pods and seeds are toxic. denotes inexact numeric rank. TerraSystems Research. Baskin, C.C. Fish and Wildlife Branch, Wildlife Section. Limited information is available on the configuration of individuals within Kentucky Coffee-tree populations. It is considered rare or uncommon and is seldom abundant throughout its range (Ambrose 1983). Ward. Critical habitat is currently not identified for the Walpole Island First Nation populations or the Sydenham River, Florence, Euphemia Township population. Gymnocladus. 502 pp. Site Occupancy Criterion: A site is considered occupied when a native Kentucky Coffee-tree has been observed between 1992 and 2011 in suitable habitat. . The 20 m distance is applied to each observation, with spatially overlapping areas merged together to form larger sites. Populations on the Lake Erie islands are usually in shallow-soiled open Common Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) dominated limestone woodland (COSEWIC 2000). In Canada, Kentucky Coffee-tree occurs at the northern extent of its North American range; extreme southwestern Ontario. Walpole Island Heritage Centre, Environment Canada and The Walpole Island Recovery Team. 2005. Kentucky Coffee-tree appears to be associated more with site conditions (e.g., open canopy) than with specific species compositions. Examples of activities that are likely to result in the destruction of critical habitat include but are not limited to the following: The performance indicators presented below provide a way to define and measure progress toward achieving the population and distribution objectives. × + 71 pp. Related Plants 'Stately Manor' 'Variegata' A correlation exists between current extant stands of Kentucky Coffee-tree and former Native American and Aboriginal settlements; thus, it is possible to infer that these cultures played a significant role in the perpetuation of the species and in shaping the tree’s current distribution (VanNatta 2009). Botanical Review 9:617-654. at dusk (Ambrose and Kevan 1990). Management of habitat at populations on the Lake Erie islands may benefit the threatened Wild Hyacinth (Camassia scilloides), which also occurs in woodland habitat; however, efforts for Kentucky Coffee-tree recovery could be focused along woodland edges where early successional forests could be encouraged. Missouri Botanical Garden. The Schedule of Studies (Section 7.2) outlines the activities required to identify additional critical habitat necessary to support the population and distribution objectives of this species. Gymnocladus (Coffee Tree) dioicus (Kentucky Coffeetree) Home » » » » Horizontal, ascending branching. Recovery Strategy for the Kentucky Coffee-tree (Gymnocladus dioicus) in Canada. Based on the criteria below, critical habitat is identified for certain extant native populations of Kentucky Coffee-tree that exist within natural settings (e.g., floodplain woodlands and woodland edges of marshes) to allow for natural dispersal and expansion of populations and to provide suitable habitat in the vicinity of populations to allow for possible augmenting of populations with opposite-sex individuals. OMNR (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources). However, comparative studies on other species of Gymnocladus that might provide more information on the Kentucky Coffee-tree’s unique biology have not been conducted. Environment Canada. 2007. In 2007, the largest population, located on East Sister Island, had over 1,200 saplings and seedlings, in addition to approximately 80 larger sized (>15 cm dbh[8]) trees, most of which are considered to be clones. 31 pp. There are three species: ⁕Gymnocladus burmanicus ⁕Gymnocladus chinensis - soap tree ⁕Gymnocladus dioicus - Kentucky coffeetree. Prepared for the St. Clair Region Conservation Authority, Strathroy, Ontario. In several instances, populations have not been visited for ten or more years and even for several of the locations recently visited, Global Positioning System (GPS) data is not available for the individual trees. COSEWIC Status History: Designated Threatened in April 1983. lobata), native to Asia, is an aggressive vine that is able to climb over top of trees and saplings, smothering them and eventually leading to death (Berisford et al. In Ontario, the species typically grows in rich floodplain woodlands and woodland edges of marshes where open canopy conditions exist (COSEWIC 2000). Edward F. Gilman and Dennis G. Watson 2. Personal communication. comm. Horr, W.H. Activities that result in impermeable surface conditions (, Activities that cause rutting, soil compaction and erosion (, Activities that alter the water regime of floodplain and riverside populations (. In 2007, many Kentucky Coffee-trees on these islands (13 trees and approximately 500 saplings on Middle Island and 80 trees and >1,200 saplings on East Sister Island) were showing signs of stress including extensive damage to the surrounding vegetation (Jalava et al. Flowers Inconspicuous. It is native to the Midwest, primarily southern Michigan and Ohio southwest to Iowa, Kansas, Oklahoma and Arkansas. Determination of restoration success and viability, as measured through plant vigour and fitness, must precede identification of critical habitat at restoration sites at this time. A similar colonization has occurred on Middle Island, beginning with three nests in 1987 and peaking at 6,635 nests in 2002. Kentucky Coffee-tree (Gymnocladus dioicus) is a moderate-sized canopy tree of the legume family, and is the only member of its genus in North America. The word dioicus relates to dioecious, meaning there are male and female trees. Weed Science 54:391–400. Species at Risk Biologist, Guelph District, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Chatham, Ontario. The record derives from ILDIS (data supplied on 2010-07-14 ) which reports it as an accepted name (record 24572 [ mirror ]). Woodliffe, A. pers. One or more action plans for Kentucky Coffee-tree will be posted on the Species at Risk Public Registry by December 2021. It is designated Threatened in Canada under the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Determine natural germination rates / requirements and develop techniques (. **ANSI – Area of Natural and Scientific Interest. 2006. Ambrose, J.D., pers. Some negative effects to other species are noted, however overall benefits to the environment through recovery actions directed toward the Kentucky Coffee-tree are considered to be positive. Forest Science 3(2). Gymnocladus dioicus. Forestry Specialist, Southern Science and Information Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, London, Ontario. Colonial Waterbirds (Spec. Yeiser, J.L. 1999) and through the deposition of guano on trees, leaves and soil which can affect photosynthesis and soil chemistry (Hebert et al. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Plant Materials Center, Manhattan, Kansas & Kansas State University, Research Forestry. Populations within these settings may be maintained either: in situ (particularly in the case of the larger fencerow populations); by incorporating their genetic material into existing populations that require augmentation through the transplanting of ramets or cuttings (particularly in the case of single roadside and backyard trees); through the establishment of populations within natural settings using these populations as source trees, if determined to be biologically and technically feasible; or any combination of the above measures. 2009), suggesting that declines in populations may be considerably greater than existing data indicate. 1997. Review of the Population Status and Management of Double-crested Cormorants in Ontario. Removal of trees has occurred more recently at some populations on private land; in at least one instance, this reduced the population to a single-sex occurrence (see Appendix C). Personal communications with J. Jalava, December 2010. Undertake field visits to assess the precise location and extent of extant populations (observed >1991) occurring in natural settings where critical habitat has yet to be identified. 1998. This has likely contributed to the increase of saplings observed on East Sister Island and may continue to stimulate vegetative reproduction on these islands (Dobbyn pers. University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, Wisconsin. 2010. 2002. Korfanty, C., W. Miyasaki and J. L. Harcus. The species is considered introduced in Quebec (COSEWIC 2000). comm. Prepared for Point Pelee National Park of Canada, Parks Canada Agency. Buck, G., pers. All rights reserved. comm. This results in infrequent germination and probably accounts for the fact that the species is rare or uncommon throughout much of its extensive North American range (Yeiser 1983; Ball and Kisor 1985). [accessed December 2006]. The species spreads mainly through ramets[6] and sexual reproduction is relatively infrequent. At least 4 of the 15 extant populations within natural settings are mixed-gender and sexually-reproducing with an additional two populations that require confirmation of sexual-reproductive status. Define gymnocladus diocus. Walpole Island Heritage Centre and Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. Gymnocladus dioicus. The seeds are reported … It is estimated that less than 5% of seeds germinate naturally without being subjected to special treatment (Wiesehuegel 1935). Minnis, P.E. National Biological Service, Environmental Management Technical Center Report LTRMP 94-S011, Onalaska, Wis. 190 pp. Environment Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service – Ontario Region. The widespread belief is that native populations are the best source for plantings because they are genetically adapted to local biophysical conditions. 2005. 2010. Inventory and monitor all extant populations for which recent (. Damage to saplings is generally the result of the deposition of cormorant guano (droppings) whereas older trees are damaged directly by nesting activities (Dobbyn pers. 1994) and is only able to withstand infrequent flooding of short duration (McClain and Jackson 1980). viii + 75 pp. Destruction is determined on a case by case basis. Garren, K.H. Essex Forests and Wetlands Conservation Action Plan (CAP). A summary of research findings. Final Report to the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. [accessed December 2010]. Woodland Species at Risk Inventory in the St. Clair Region Conservation Authority. 25 Kentucky Coffee Tree Seeds (gymnocladus dioicus), easy to germinate. Threats identified to the Canadian population of Kentucky Coffee-tree include, but are not limited to: land development, Double-crested Cormorant (Phalocrocorax auritus) nesting colonies, alteration of the water regime, alteration of the fire regime, cutting/removal of Kentucky Coffee-trees, planting of non-native Kentucky Coffee-trees and invasive species. 1983. 2011). Integrate restoration planning and activities with partner agencies and groups such as conservation authorities and other non-governmental organizations, First Nations and federal and provincial government agencies. You will not receive a reply. Deciduous - large, 2-pinnate leaves to 1m (3ft) long, each leaflet divided into 8-14 oval leaflets.Green - greenish white In Canada, it occurs only in extreme southern Ontario, in Middlesex, Essex, Kent, and Lambton Counties (Figure 2). Ottawa. Success in the recovery of this species depends on the commitment and cooperation of many different constituencies that will be involved in implementing the directions set out in this strategy and will not be achieved by Environment Canada or the Parks Canada Agency, or any other jurisdiction alone. University of Guelph Arboretum, Guelph, Ontario. comm. and C.K. Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario. expert opinion; Low: the threat is assumed or plausible). 2010) has noted that genetic diversity of Kentucky Coffee-tree is believed to be relatively low across its range in North America, so the introduction of non-native stock may not have as great an impact on the local gene pool as some fear. Mature trees grow 18 to 30 m tall (USDA 2007) and may live up to 100 years or more. Middle-aged Kentucky Coffeetree. PRAIRIE TITAN® Kentucky Coffeetree is derived from a tree native to the streambanks and floodplains of midwestern North America. It is shade-intolerant, requiring canopy openings for seedling establishment. At extant sites characterize habitat, assess threats and investigate reproductive status. ERCA (Essex Region Conservation Authority). Pollination is believed to be facilitated by insects (Ambrose 1983). 2006. It is important to note that the coordinates provided are a cartographic representation of the sites where the critical habitat can be found. In addition, the hard impermeable seed coat and the lack of existing biological agents to successfully break it, results in infrequent germination; it is estimated that less than 5% of seeds germinate under natural conditions (Wiesehuegel 1935). Kentucky coffeetree Fabaceae Gymnocladus dioicus (L.) K. Koch symbol: GYDI Leaf: Alternate, bipinnately compound, very large (1 to 3 feet long), with numerous 1 1/2 to 2 inch ovate leaflets, entire margins, green above, slightly paler below. Kentucky Coffee-tree populations in Canada are limited by low rates of sexual reproduction. Ambrose, J.D. Height: 60 - 100 feet. Natural Heritage Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough, Ontario.
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