Search this site. URL Regional weather models are increasingly incorporating land surface characteristics. . 2: Our Changing Climate; Ch. | Detail ↩, Fry, J. West, Ch. URL Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 35, 398-434, doi:10.1093/aepp/ppt020. | Detail ↩, Zhu, Z., M. Bouchard, D. Butman, T. Hawbaker, Z. Li, J. Liu, S. Liu, C. McDonald, R. Reker, K. Sayler, B. Sleeter, T. Sohl, S. Stackpoole, A. Wein, and Z. Zhu, 2011: Baseline and Projected Future Carbon Storage and Greenhouse-Gas Fluxes in the Great Plains Region of the United States. Land Economics, 84, 529-550, doi:10.3368/le.84.4.529. a Land in an altered and often un-vegetated state that, because of disturbances by mechanical means, is in transition from one cover type to another. Specifically students are required to … | Detail ↩, Bonan, G. B., 2001: Observational evidence for reduction of daily maximum temperature by croplands in the Midwest United States. | Detail ↩, Hammer, R. B., S. I. Stewart, and V. C. Radeloff, 2009: Demographic trends, the wildland–urban interface, and wildfire management. 41 pp., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Asheville, NC. This book represents a compilation of twenty-four research articles presented at a special seminar in 1999. Meyer and Turner 1994 provides a comprehensive overview of LUCC research just prior to the initiation of the IGBP/IHDP LUCC project. At the same time, future climate changes will also affect how and where humans live and use land for various purposes. | Detail ↩, ,, 2007: City of Homer Climate Action Plan: Reducing the Threat of Global Climate Change Through Government and Community Efforts. There is little uncertainty behind the premise that specific land uses affect the carbon cycle. For example, retiring farmland to sequester carbon may be difficult to achieve if crop prices rise,57 such as has occurred in recent years in response to the fast-growing market for biofuels. A number of books also provide overviews of LUCC research. This seminal paper established the framework of proximate causes and underlying drivers for understanding tropical deforestation. Some figures and images are copyright protected. Increases in low-density exurban areas will result in a greater area affected by development and are expected to increase commuting times and infrastructure costs. Land-cover projections by Wear13 show that both cropland and forest are projected to decline most relative to 1997 (by 6% to 7%, respectively, by 2050) under a scenario of high population and economic growth and least (by 4% and 6%, respectively) under lower-growth scenarios. | Detail ↩, Hollman, F. W., T. J. Mulder, and J. E. Kallan, 2000: Methodology and Assumptions for Population Projections of the United States: 1999 to 2100. Chapter 1 Key Issue 1 of The Cultural Landscape by James. Although there is little uncertainty that land-use decisions can enable adaptation to climate change, the information about climate change, at scales where such decisions are made, is generally lacking. In the western United States, increasing frequencies of large wildfires and longer wildfire durations are strongly associated with increased spring and summer temperatures and an earlier spring snowmelt.20 The effects on property loss of increases in the frequency and sizes of fires under climate change are also projected to increase in the coming decades because so many more people will have moved into increasingly fire-prone places (Ch. | Detail ↩, ,, 2011: Living with a Rising Bay: Vulnerability and Adaptation in San Francisco Bay and on its Shoreline. | Detail ↩, Landsberg, H. E., 1970: Man-made climatic changes: Man's activities have altered the climate of urbanized areas and may affect global climate in the future. Meyer, William B., and B. L. Turner II, eds. This paper presents the field of “land change science” and reviews the state of the field within four broad topic areas: “observation and monitoring; understanding the coupled system—causes, impacts, and consequences; modeling; and synthesis issues” (p. 20666). Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13, 1687-1703, doi:10.1175/JHM-D-11-099.1. Steadily accumulating field and remote sensing observations as well as inventories continue to increase confidence in this key message. Table 13.2: Fan, A. Robock, M. D. Kustu, and D. Robinson, Evidence of enhanced precipitation due to irrigation over the Great Plains of the United States, DeFries, R. S., G. P. Asner, and R. A. Houghton, Fall, S., N. S. Diffenbaugh, D. Niyogi, R. A. Pielke, Sr, and G. Rochon, Temperature and equivalent temperature over the United States (1979–2005), Foley, J. Brown, Robinson, D.T., French, N.H., and Reed, B.C., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 331-358. Future patterns of land use and land cover will interact with climate changes to affect human communities and ecosystems. The primary source related to land use has been the conversion of native vegetation like forests and grasslands to croplands, which in turn has released carbon from vegetation and soil into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide (CO2).55 Currently, an estimated 16% of CO2 going into the atmosphere is due to land-related activities globally, with the remainder coming from fossil fuel burning and cement manufacturing.55 In the United States, activities related to land use are effectively balanced with respect to CO2: as much CO2 is released to the atmosphere by land-use activities as is taken up by and stored in, for example, vegetation and soil. URL Start studying AP Human Geography: Land Use. | Detail ↩, Schwalm, C. R., C. A. Williams, K. Schaefer, D. Baldocchi, T. A. Research on LUCC is essentially of multidisciplinary nature, attracting scientists from a range of fields, including but not limited to economics, sociology, geography, GIScience (geographic information systems [GIS] and remote sensing in particular), and demography. How many people, living where, eating and consuming what, and produced how and where describes the vast majority of these human-inscribed landscape dynamics. | Detail ↩, ,, 2012: Sea Level Rise Adaptation Strategy for San Diego Bay. Brown, Robinson, D.T., French, N.H., and Reed, B.C., Eds., Cambridge University Press, 431-454. | Detail ↩, Churkina, G., D. G. Brown, and G. Keoleian, 2010: Carbon stored in human settlements: The conterminous United States. AP Human Geography. The impacts of changes in land use and land cover cut across all regions and sectors of the National Climate Assessment. mixed economy definition ap human geography. Taylor & Francis Series in Remote Sensing Applications. With goals to monitor LUCC and to “socialize the pixel” (link such changes to socioeconomic and geographic processes), this book covers a wide range of geographic regions and technical/modeling applications. This book presents the state of the art, and new frontiers, in methods and techniques in LUCC characterization, mapping, and monitoring using remote-sensing technology, with empirical examples at multiple scales. 7: Forests). Policymakers can directly affect land use and land cover. Land-use and land-cover changes are affecting global atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. | Detail ↩, Souch, C., and S. Grimmond, 2006: Applied climatology: Urban climate. Science, 309, 570-574, doi:10.1126/science.1111772. These changes may be either encouraged or mandated by government (whether at federal or other levels), or undertaken by private initiative. | Detail ↩, Jones, C. Adaire, C. J. Nickerson, and P. W. Heisey, 2013: New uses of old tools? | Detail ↩, Harding, K. J., and P. K. Snyder, 2012: Modeling the atmospheric response to irrigation in the Great Plains. Adaptation options (those aimed at coping with the effects of climate change) include varying the local mix of vegetation and concrete to reduce heat in cities or elevating homes to reduce exposure to sea level rise or flooding. Projections based on estimates of housing-unit density allow the assessment of impacts of urban land-use growth by density class. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 141, 208-218, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.10.006. 201215). This video takes an in depth look into the five themes of geography. Ecological Applications, 15, 1851-1863, doi:10.1890/03-5220. Both observational and modeling studies show that introduction of irrigated agriculture can alter regional precipitation. First, land decisions are influenced not only by climate but also by economic, cultural, legal, or other considerations. The most direct influence is through the alteration of Earth’s albedo, or surface reflectance. Please subscribe or login. 12: Indigenous Peoples). These national-level annual rates of land changes mask considerable geographic variability in the types, rates, and causes of change.11 Between 1973 and 2000, the Southeast region had the highest rate of change, due to active forest timber harvesting and replanting, while the Southwest region had the lowest rate of change. Papers presented at the 1991 OEIS Global Change Institute conference, held in Snowmass Village, CO. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing, 68, 1091-1099. b Land in an altered and often un-vegetated state that because of disturbances by non-mechanical means is in transition from one cover type to another. Journal of Geophysical Research, 116, D06102, doi:10.1029/2010JD014775. 4). | Detail ↩, Pielke, Sr., R. A., 2005: Land use and climate change. A recent study by the EPA14 provides relevant projections of housing density and impervious surface under alternative scenarios of climate change. | Detail ↩, Nickerson, C., R. Ebel, A. Borchers, and F. Carriazo, 2011: Major Uses of Land in the United States, 2007. Home. Notice how they can be approached from different subject areas (they usually cover more than one topic). Science, 170, 1265-1274, doi:10.1126/science.170.3964.1265. AP Human Geography: Urban Patterns 🎓questionAnnexation answerDefinition: Legally adding land area to a city in the United States. Eos, Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 93, 473-474, doi:10.1029/2012EO470001. | Detail ↩, ,, 2011: ClimateLA: City of Los Angeles. A number of examples and field studies are consistent in demonstrating effects of land use and land-cover change on the climate of the United States. | Detail ↩, ,, 1995: Table 1. Lambin and Geist introduce the report by arguing that the community is approaching an “overarching theory” of LUCC. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 13, 1667-1686, doi:10.1175/jhm-d-11-098.1. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Lack of parks, green spaces, and trees causes heat island effect . 44 pp., City of Homer, Homer, Alaska. Hammer, S. I. Stewart, J. S. Fried, S. S. Holcomb, and J. F. McKeefry, The wildland-urban interface in the United States, Sandstrom, M. A., R. G. Lauritsen, and D. Changnon, A central-US summer extreme dew-point climatology (1949-2000), Schwalm, C. R., C. A. Williams, K. Schaefer, D. Baldocchi, T. A. Facilitate migration of a salt marsh inland as Sea level Rise adaptation Strategy for San Bay... 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