Lenin and the Bolsheviks wanted the Communist Party to be led â¦ themselves). They felt the Bolsheviks would give them land and a system in which they did not have overlords to exploit them. The Bolsheviks, who were students of Marx, believed that the Russian power structure should be overthrown and power should be given to the architects of the revolution (i.e. The Red Guards, soldiers and sailors, stormed the former Tsar's palace (Winter Palace) in November 1917. In my contribution, I want to revisit the main conclusions of my writings on 1917, especially as they relate to the thorny, still deeply politicized question of how the Bolsheviks won out in â¦ The Karl-Marx Hof [Courtyard] in Vienna, 1930 âRed Vienna,â the municipal stronghold of the Social-Democratic Party of Austria (SDAP) in the 1920s and 30s, has become increasingly popular on the left recently. In February of that year, the people of Russia revolted against the Tsar and his autocratic regime. They set up a democratic parliament and were in the process of turning Russia into a liberal democracy. Lenin became the leader of the "Bolshevik" -- Russian for "majority" -- faction of the Communist Party while Trotsky was one of the leaders of the "Menshevik" or "minority" faction. Why did the Bolsheviks win? Support from the peasants was needed if the fragile Bolshevik government was going to survive â hence why they agreed that they would hand over control of the land to the peasants in the form of state collective farms. Subject essay: Lewis Siegelbaum. The workers were also generally behind the Bolsheviks. In 1918, the party was renamed the Russian Communist Party. Texts Images Video Music Other Resources. ... âEverything you want to knowâ¦â is â¦ Lenin and his communist cohorts endeavored to put Marx's tenets of belief into practice. The Bolshevik seizure of power in Petrograd in October 1917 was celebrated for over seventy years by the Soviet government as a sacred act that laid the foundation for a new political order which would transform âbackwardâ Russia (and after 1923 the Soviet Union) into an advanced socialist society. Fast-forward to 1917. Now, what made Bolsheviks different from Mensheviks, Social Revolutionaries, or indeed their predecessors in the populist intelligentsia, was the usage of violence [Extract from a paper I wrote in November on "The Failure of the âPublic Sphereâ in Late Tsarist Russia, Bolshevik Militarism and the Russian Civil War"]: Bolshevik Land Reforms Land reform was very important to the Bolsheviks. The years from 1917 to 1920 became known as "war communism" due to the methods the Bolsheviks used to push their political agenda. The Provisional Government had failed â¦ The Bolsheviks, in Lenin and Trotsky's writings time after time called for the placing of the economy and state directly under workers' control.